The contributions of gravity waves to the momentum budget in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) is examined using simulation data from the Ground-to-Topside Model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy (GAIA) whole-atmosphere model. Regardless of the relatively coarse model resolution, gravity waves appear in the MLT region. The resolved gravity waves largely contribute to the MLT momentum budget. A pair of positive and negative Eliassen-Palm flux divergences of the resolved gravity waves are observed in the summer MLT region, suggesting that the resolved gravity waves are likely in situ generated in the MLT region. In the summer MLT region, the mean zonal winds have a strong vertical shear that is likely formed by parameterized gravity wave forcing. The Richardson number sometimes becomes less than a quarter in the strong-shear region, suggesting that the resolved gravity waves are generated by shear instability. In addition, shear instability occurs in the low (middle) latitudes of the summer (winter) MLT region and is associated with diurnal (semidiurnal) migrating tides. Resolved gravity waves are also radiated from these regions. In Part I of this paper, it was shown that Rossby waves in the MLTregion are also radiated by the barotropic and/or baroclinic instability formed by parameterized gravity wave forcing. These results strongly suggest that the forcing by gravity waves originating from the lower atmosphere causes the barotropic/baroclinic and shear instabilities in the mesosphere that, respectively, generate Rossby and gravity waves and suggest that the in situ generation and dissipation of these waves play important roles in the momentum budget of the MLT region.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science