The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam

R. Acquafredda, T. Adam, N. Agafonova, P. Alvarez Sanchez, M. Ambrosio, A. Anokhina, S. Aoki, A. Ariga, T. Ariga, L. Arrabito, C. Aufranc, D. Autiero, A. Badertscher, A. Bagulya, E. Baussan, A. Bergnoli, F. Bersani Greggio, A. Bertolin, M. Besnier, D. Biaré & 242 others D. Bick, S. Blin, K. Borer, J. Boucrot, D. Boutigny, V. Boyarkin, C. Bozza, T. Brugière, R. Brugnera, G. Brunetti, S. Buontempo, J. E. Campagne, B. Carlus, E. Carrara, A. Cazes, L. Chaussard, M. Chernyavsky, V. Chiarella, N. Chon-Sen, A. Chukanov, R. Ciesielski, L. Consiglio, M. Cozzi, G. D'Amato, F. Dal Corso, N. D'Ambrosio, J. Damet, C. De La Taille, G. De Lellis, Y. Déclais, T. Descombes, M. De Serio, F. Di Capua, D. Di Ferdinando, A. Di Giovanni, N. Di Marco, C. Di Troia, N. Dick, S. Dmitrievski, A. Dominjon, M. Dracos, D. Duchesneau, B. Dulach, S. Dusini, J. Ebert, I. Efthymiopoulos, O. Egorov, K. Elsener, R. Enikeev, A. Ereditato, S. Esposito, C. Fanin, J. Favier, G. Felici, T. Ferber, R. Fini, L. Fournier, A. Franceschi, D. Frekers, T. Fukuda, C. Fukushima, V. I. Galkin, V. A. Galkin, R. Gallet, S. Gardien, A. Garfagnini, G. Gaudiot, G. Giacomelli, M. Giorgini, C. Girerd, C. Goellnitz, T. Goeltzenlichter, J. Goldberg, D. Golubkov, Y. Gornushkin, J. N. Grapton, G. Grella, F. Grianti, E. Gschwendtner, C. Guerin, M. Guler, C. Gustavino, J. L. Guyonnet, C. Hagner, T. Hamane, T. Hara, M. Hauger, M. Hess, M. Hierholzer, K. Hoshino, M. Ieva, M. Incurvati, K. Jakovcic, J. Janicsko Csathy, B. Janutta, C. Jollet, F. Juget, M. Kazuyama, S. H. Kim, N. Khovansky, M. Kimura, B. Klicek, J. Knuesel, K. Kodama, D. Kolev, M. Komatsu, U. Kose, A. Krasnoperov, I. Kreslo, Z. Krumstein, V. V. Kutsenov, V. A. Kuznetsov, I. Laktineh, M. Lavy, C. Lazzaro, T. D. Le, T. Le Flour, J. Lenkeit, J. Lewis, S. Lieunard, A. Ljubicic, A. Longhin, G. Lutter, A. Malgin, K. Manai, G. Mandrioli, A. Marotta, J. Marteau, G. Martin-Chassard, V. Matveev, N. Mauri, M. Meddahi, F. Meisel, A. Meregaglia, A. Meschini, M. Messina, P. Migliozzi, P. Monacelli, I. Monteiro, F. Moreau, K. Morishima, U. Moser, M. T. Muciaccia, P. Mugnier, N. Naganawa, M. Nakamura, T. Nakano, T. Napolitano, V. Nikitina, K. Niwa, Y. Nonoyama, A. Nozdrin, S. Ogawa, A. Olchevski, D. Orlandi, G. Orlova, V. Osedlo, D. Ossetski, M. Paniccia, A. Paoloni, B. D. Park, I. G. Park, A. Pastore, L. Patrizii, L. Pellegrino, E. Pennacchio, H. Pessard, V. Pilipenko, C. Pistillo, N. Polukhina, M. Pozzato, K. Pretzl, P. Publichenko, F. Pupilli, L. Raux, P. Repellin, R. Rescigno, D. Rizhikov, T. Roganova, G. Romano, G. Rosa, I. Rostovtseva, A. Rubbia, A. Russo, V. Ryasny, O. Ryazhskaya, A. Sadovski, C. Sanelli, O. Sato, Y. Sato, V. Saveliev, G. Sazhina, A. Schembri, W. Schmidt Parzefall, H. Schroeder, H. U. Schütz, J. Schuler, L. Scotto Lavina, J. Serrano, H. Shibuya, S. Simone, M. Sioli, C. Sirignano, G. Sirri, J. S. Song, M. Spinetti, L. Stanco, N. Starkov, M. Stipcevic, T. Strauss, P. Strolin, V. Sugonyaev, S. Takahashi, V. Talochkin, M. Tenti, V. Tereschenko, F. Terranova, I. Tezuka, V. Tioukov, P. Tolun, V. Tsarev, R. Tsenov, S. Tufanli, U. Ugolino, N. Ushida, G. Van Beek, V. Verguilov, T. Viant, P. Vilain, M. Vladimirov, L. Votano, J. L. Vuilleumier, T. Waelchli, M. Weber, G. Wilquet, B. Wonsak, J. Wurtz, V. Yakushev, C. S. Yoon, Y. Zaitsev, A. Zghiche, R. Zimmermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

191 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP04018
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

neutrino beams
Emulsion
bricks
Brick
Neutrinos
Scintillator
Detector
Spectrometer
Target
Scanning
Emulsions
Experiment
Detectors
Neutrino Oscillations
Phosphors
Experiments
Cosmic Rays
scintillation counters
emulsions
Spectrometers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Mathematical Physics

Cite this

Acquafredda, R., Adam, T., Agafonova, N., Alvarez Sanchez, P., Ambrosio, M., Anokhina, A., ... Zimmermann, R. (2009). The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. Journal of Instrumentation, 4(4), [P04018]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018

The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. / Acquafredda, R.; Adam, T.; Agafonova, N.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Ambrosio, M.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Arrabito, L.; Aufranc, C.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Baussan, E.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Biaré, D.; Bick, D.; Blin, S.; Borer, K.; Boucrot, J.; Boutigny, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Campagne, J. E.; Carlus, B.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Damet, J.; De La Taille, C.; De Lellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; Descombes, T.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dick, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, O.; Elsener, K.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, S.; Fanin, C.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Fournier, L.; Franceschi, A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Gallet, R.; Gardien, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Gaudiot, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Girerd, C.; Goellnitz, C.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J. N.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Gschwendtner, E.; Guerin, C.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Guyonnet, J. L.; Hagner, C.; Hamane, T.; Hara, T.; Hauger, M.; Hess, M.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Incurvati, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Khovansky, N.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Kolev, D.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kreslo, I.; Krumstein, Z.; Kutsenov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Laktineh, I.; Lavy, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, T. D.; Le Flour, T.; Lenkeit, J.; Lewis, J.; Lieunard, S.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Meddahi, M.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Meschini, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Monteiro, I.; Moreau, F.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Mugnier, P.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Napolitano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Nozdrin, A.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Orlandi, D.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Raux, L.; Repellin, P.; Rescigno, R.; Rizhikov, D.; Roganova, T.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sadovski, A.; Sanelli, C.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schütz, H. U.; Schuler, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Serrano, J.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Takahashi, S.; Talochkin, V.; Tenti, M.; Tereschenko, V.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Ugolino, U.; Ushida, N.; Van Beek, G.; Verguilov, V.; Viant, T.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Waelchli, T.; Weber, M.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

In: Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 4, No. 4, P04018, 2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acquafredda, R, Adam, T, Agafonova, N, Alvarez Sanchez, P, Ambrosio, M, Anokhina, A, Aoki, S, Ariga, A, Ariga, T, Arrabito, L, Aufranc, C, Autiero, D, Badertscher, A, Bagulya, A, Baussan, E, Bergnoli, A, Bersani Greggio, F, Bertolin, A, Besnier, M, Biaré, D, Bick, D, Blin, S, Borer, K, Boucrot, J, Boutigny, D, Boyarkin, V, Bozza, C, Brugière, T, Brugnera, R, Brunetti, G, Buontempo, S, Campagne, JE, Carlus, B, Carrara, E, Cazes, A, Chaussard, L, Chernyavsky, M, Chiarella, V, Chon-Sen, N, Chukanov, A, Ciesielski, R, Consiglio, L, Cozzi, M, D'Amato, G, Dal Corso, F, D'Ambrosio, N, Damet, J, De La Taille, C, De Lellis, G, Déclais, Y, Descombes, T, De Serio, M, Di Capua, F, Di Ferdinando, D, Di Giovanni, A, Di Marco, N, Di Troia, C, Dick, N, Dmitrievski, S, Dominjon, A, Dracos, M, Duchesneau, D, Dulach, B, Dusini, S, Ebert, J, Efthymiopoulos, I, Egorov, O, Elsener, K, Enikeev, R, Ereditato, A, Esposito, S, Fanin, C, Favier, J, Felici, G, Ferber, T, Fini, R, Fournier, L, Franceschi, A, Frekers, D, Fukuda, T, Fukushima, C, Galkin, VI, Galkin, VA, Gallet, R, Gardien, S, Garfagnini, A, Gaudiot, G, Giacomelli, G, Giorgini, M, Girerd, C, Goellnitz, C, Goeltzenlichter, T, Goldberg, J, Golubkov, D, Gornushkin, Y, Grapton, JN, Grella, G, Grianti, F, Gschwendtner, E, Guerin, C, Guler, M, Gustavino, C, Guyonnet, JL, Hagner, C, Hamane, T, Hara, T, Hauger, M, Hess, M, Hierholzer, M, Hoshino, K, Ieva, M, Incurvati, M, Jakovcic, K, Janicsko Csathy, J, Janutta, B, Jollet, C, Juget, F, Kazuyama, M, Kim, SH, Khovansky, N, Kimura, M, Klicek, B, Knuesel, J, Kodama, K, Kolev, D, Komatsu, M, Kose, U, Krasnoperov, A, Kreslo, I, Krumstein, Z, Kutsenov, VV, Kuznetsov, VA, Laktineh, I, Lavy, M, Lazzaro, C, Le, TD, Le Flour, T, Lenkeit, J, Lewis, J, Lieunard, S, Ljubicic, A, Longhin, A, Lutter, G, Malgin, A, Manai, K, Mandrioli, G, Marotta, A, Marteau, J, Martin-Chassard, G, Matveev, V, Mauri, N, Meddahi, M, Meisel, F, Meregaglia, A, Meschini, A, Messina, M, Migliozzi, P, Monacelli, P, Monteiro, I, Moreau, F, Morishima, K, Moser, U, Muciaccia, MT, Mugnier, P, Naganawa, N, Nakamura, M, Nakano, T, Napolitano, T, Nikitina, V, Niwa, K, Nonoyama, Y, Nozdrin, A, Ogawa, S, Olchevski, A, Orlandi, D, Orlova, G, Osedlo, V, Ossetski, D, Paniccia, M, Paoloni, A, Park, BD, Park, IG, Pastore, A, Patrizii, L, Pellegrino, L, Pennacchio, E, Pessard, H, Pilipenko, V, Pistillo, C, Polukhina, N, Pozzato, M, Pretzl, K, Publichenko, P, Pupilli, F, Raux, L, Repellin, P, Rescigno, R, Rizhikov, D, Roganova, T, Romano, G, Rosa, G, Rostovtseva, I, Rubbia, A, Russo, A, Ryasny, V, Ryazhskaya, O, Sadovski, A, Sanelli, C, Sato, O, Sato, Y, Saveliev, V, Sazhina, G, Schembri, A, Schmidt Parzefall, W, Schroeder, H, Schütz, HU, Schuler, J, Scotto Lavina, L, Serrano, J, Shibuya, H, Simone, S, Sioli, M, Sirignano, C, Sirri, G, Song, JS, Spinetti, M, Stanco, L, Starkov, N, Stipcevic, M, Strauss, T, Strolin, P, Sugonyaev, V, Takahashi, S, Talochkin, V, Tenti, M, Tereschenko, V, Terranova, F, Tezuka, I, Tioukov, V, Tolun, P, Tsarev, V, Tsenov, R, Tufanli, S, Ugolino, U, Ushida, N, Van Beek, G, Verguilov, V, Viant, T, Vilain, P, Vladimirov, M, Votano, L, Vuilleumier, JL, Waelchli, T, Weber, M, Wilquet, G, Wonsak, B, Wurtz, J, Yakushev, V, Yoon, CS, Zaitsev, Y, Zghiche, A & Zimmermann, R 2009, 'The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam', Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 4, no. 4, P04018. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018
Acquafredda R, Adam T, Agafonova N, Alvarez Sanchez P, Ambrosio M, Anokhina A et al. The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. Journal of Instrumentation. 2009;4(4). P04018. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018
Acquafredda, R. ; Adam, T. ; Agafonova, N. ; Alvarez Sanchez, P. ; Ambrosio, M. ; Anokhina, A. ; Aoki, S. ; Ariga, A. ; Ariga, T. ; Arrabito, L. ; Aufranc, C. ; Autiero, D. ; Badertscher, A. ; Bagulya, A. ; Baussan, E. ; Bergnoli, A. ; Bersani Greggio, F. ; Bertolin, A. ; Besnier, M. ; Biaré, D. ; Bick, D. ; Blin, S. ; Borer, K. ; Boucrot, J. ; Boutigny, D. ; Boyarkin, V. ; Bozza, C. ; Brugière, T. ; Brugnera, R. ; Brunetti, G. ; Buontempo, S. ; Campagne, J. E. ; Carlus, B. ; Carrara, E. ; Cazes, A. ; Chaussard, L. ; Chernyavsky, M. ; Chiarella, V. ; Chon-Sen, N. ; Chukanov, A. ; Ciesielski, R. ; Consiglio, L. ; Cozzi, M. ; D'Amato, G. ; Dal Corso, F. ; D'Ambrosio, N. ; Damet, J. ; De La Taille, C. ; De Lellis, G. ; Déclais, Y. ; Descombes, T. ; De Serio, M. ; Di Capua, F. ; Di Ferdinando, D. ; Di Giovanni, A. ; Di Marco, N. ; Di Troia, C. ; Dick, N. ; Dmitrievski, S. ; Dominjon, A. ; Dracos, M. ; Duchesneau, D. ; Dulach, B. ; Dusini, S. ; Ebert, J. ; Efthymiopoulos, I. ; Egorov, O. ; Elsener, K. ; Enikeev, R. ; Ereditato, A. ; Esposito, S. ; Fanin, C. ; Favier, J. ; Felici, G. ; Ferber, T. ; Fini, R. ; Fournier, L. ; Franceschi, A. ; Frekers, D. ; Fukuda, T. ; Fukushima, C. ; Galkin, V. I. ; Galkin, V. A. ; Gallet, R. ; Gardien, S. ; Garfagnini, A. ; Gaudiot, G. ; Giacomelli, G. ; Giorgini, M. ; Girerd, C. ; Goellnitz, C. ; Goeltzenlichter, T. ; Goldberg, J. ; Golubkov, D. ; Gornushkin, Y. ; Grapton, J. N. ; Grella, G. ; Grianti, F. ; Gschwendtner, E. ; Guerin, C. ; Guler, M. ; Gustavino, C. ; Guyonnet, J. L. ; Hagner, C. ; Hamane, T. ; Hara, T. ; Hauger, M. ; Hess, M. ; Hierholzer, M. ; Hoshino, K. ; Ieva, M. ; Incurvati, M. ; Jakovcic, K. ; Janicsko Csathy, J. ; Janutta, B. ; Jollet, C. ; Juget, F. ; Kazuyama, M. ; Kim, S. H. ; Khovansky, N. ; Kimura, M. ; Klicek, B. ; Knuesel, J. ; Kodama, K. ; Kolev, D. ; Komatsu, M. ; Kose, U. ; Krasnoperov, A. ; Kreslo, I. ; Krumstein, Z. ; Kutsenov, V. V. ; Kuznetsov, V. A. ; Laktineh, I. ; Lavy, M. ; Lazzaro, C. ; Le, T. D. ; Le Flour, T. ; Lenkeit, J. ; Lewis, J. ; Lieunard, S. ; Ljubicic, A. ; Longhin, A. ; Lutter, G. ; Malgin, A. ; Manai, K. ; Mandrioli, G. ; Marotta, A. ; Marteau, J. ; Martin-Chassard, G. ; Matveev, V. ; Mauri, N. ; Meddahi, M. ; Meisel, F. ; Meregaglia, A. ; Meschini, A. ; Messina, M. ; Migliozzi, P. ; Monacelli, P. ; Monteiro, I. ; Moreau, F. ; Morishima, K. ; Moser, U. ; Muciaccia, M. T. ; Mugnier, P. ; Naganawa, N. ; Nakamura, M. ; Nakano, T. ; Napolitano, T. ; Nikitina, V. ; Niwa, K. ; Nonoyama, Y. ; Nozdrin, A. ; Ogawa, S. ; Olchevski, A. ; Orlandi, D. ; Orlova, G. ; Osedlo, V. ; Ossetski, D. ; Paniccia, M. ; Paoloni, A. ; Park, B. D. ; Park, I. G. ; Pastore, A. ; Patrizii, L. ; Pellegrino, L. ; Pennacchio, E. ; Pessard, H. ; Pilipenko, V. ; Pistillo, C. ; Polukhina, N. ; Pozzato, M. ; Pretzl, K. ; Publichenko, P. ; Pupilli, F. ; Raux, L. ; Repellin, P. ; Rescigno, R. ; Rizhikov, D. ; Roganova, T. ; Romano, G. ; Rosa, G. ; Rostovtseva, I. ; Rubbia, A. ; Russo, A. ; Ryasny, V. ; Ryazhskaya, O. ; Sadovski, A. ; Sanelli, C. ; Sato, O. ; Sato, Y. ; Saveliev, V. ; Sazhina, G. ; Schembri, A. ; Schmidt Parzefall, W. ; Schroeder, H. ; Schütz, H. U. ; Schuler, J. ; Scotto Lavina, L. ; Serrano, J. ; Shibuya, H. ; Simone, S. ; Sioli, M. ; Sirignano, C. ; Sirri, G. ; Song, J. S. ; Spinetti, M. ; Stanco, L. ; Starkov, N. ; Stipcevic, M. ; Strauss, T. ; Strolin, P. ; Sugonyaev, V. ; Takahashi, S. ; Talochkin, V. ; Tenti, M. ; Tereschenko, V. ; Terranova, F. ; Tezuka, I. ; Tioukov, V. ; Tolun, P. ; Tsarev, V. ; Tsenov, R. ; Tufanli, S. ; Ugolino, U. ; Ushida, N. ; Van Beek, G. ; Verguilov, V. ; Viant, T. ; Vilain, P. ; Vladimirov, M. ; Votano, L. ; Vuilleumier, J. L. ; Waelchli, T. ; Weber, M. ; Wilquet, G. ; Wonsak, B. ; Wurtz, J. ; Yakushev, V. ; Yoon, C. S. ; Zaitsev, Y. ; Zghiche, A. ; Zimmermann, R. / The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. In: Journal of Instrumentation. 2009 ; Vol. 4, No. 4.
@article{825b6ec3ca074783b3c329bfd9202fee,
title = "The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam",
abstract = "The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.",
author = "R. Acquafredda and T. Adam and N. Agafonova and {Alvarez Sanchez}, P. and M. Ambrosio and A. Anokhina and S. Aoki and A. Ariga and T. Ariga and L. Arrabito and C. Aufranc and D. Autiero and A. Badertscher and A. Bagulya and E. Baussan and A. Bergnoli and {Bersani Greggio}, F. and A. Bertolin and M. Besnier and D. Biar{\'e} and D. Bick and S. Blin and K. Borer and J. Boucrot and D. Boutigny and V. Boyarkin and C. Bozza and T. Brugi{\`e}re and R. Brugnera and G. Brunetti and S. Buontempo and Campagne, {J. E.} and B. Carlus and E. Carrara and A. Cazes and L. Chaussard and M. Chernyavsky and V. Chiarella and N. Chon-Sen and A. Chukanov and R. Ciesielski and L. Consiglio and M. Cozzi and G. D'Amato and {Dal Corso}, F. and N. D'Ambrosio and J. Damet and {De La Taille}, C. and {De Lellis}, G. and Y. D{\'e}clais and T. Descombes and {De Serio}, M. and {Di Capua}, F. and {Di Ferdinando}, D. and {Di Giovanni}, A. and {Di Marco}, N. and {Di Troia}, C. and N. Dick and S. Dmitrievski and A. Dominjon and M. Dracos and D. Duchesneau and B. Dulach and S. Dusini and J. Ebert and I. Efthymiopoulos and O. Egorov and K. Elsener and R. Enikeev and A. Ereditato and S. Esposito and C. Fanin and J. Favier and G. Felici and T. Ferber and R. Fini and L. Fournier and A. Franceschi and D. Frekers and T. Fukuda and C. Fukushima and Galkin, {V. I.} and Galkin, {V. A.} and R. Gallet and S. Gardien and A. Garfagnini and G. Gaudiot and G. Giacomelli and M. Giorgini and C. Girerd and C. Goellnitz and T. Goeltzenlichter and J. Goldberg and D. Golubkov and Y. Gornushkin and Grapton, {J. N.} and G. Grella and F. Grianti and E. Gschwendtner and C. Guerin and M. Guler and C. Gustavino and Guyonnet, {J. L.} and C. Hagner and T. Hamane and T. Hara and M. Hauger and M. Hess and M. Hierholzer and K. Hoshino and M. Ieva and M. Incurvati and K. Jakovcic and {Janicsko Csathy}, J. and B. Janutta and C. Jollet and F. Juget and M. Kazuyama and Kim, {S. H.} and N. Khovansky and M. Kimura and B. Klicek and J. Knuesel and K. Kodama and D. Kolev and M. Komatsu and U. Kose and A. Krasnoperov and I. Kreslo and Z. Krumstein and Kutsenov, {V. V.} and Kuznetsov, {V. A.} and I. Laktineh and M. Lavy and C. Lazzaro and Le, {T. D.} and {Le Flour}, T. and J. Lenkeit and J. Lewis and S. Lieunard and A. Ljubicic and A. Longhin and G. Lutter and A. Malgin and K. Manai and G. Mandrioli and A. Marotta and J. Marteau and G. Martin-Chassard and V. Matveev and N. Mauri and M. Meddahi and F. Meisel and A. Meregaglia and A. Meschini and M. Messina and P. Migliozzi and P. Monacelli and I. Monteiro and F. Moreau and K. Morishima and U. Moser and Muciaccia, {M. T.} and P. Mugnier and N. Naganawa and M. Nakamura and T. Nakano and T. Napolitano and V. Nikitina and K. Niwa and Y. Nonoyama and A. Nozdrin and S. Ogawa and A. Olchevski and D. Orlandi and G. Orlova and V. Osedlo and D. Ossetski and M. Paniccia and A. Paoloni and Park, {B. D.} and Park, {I. G.} and A. Pastore and L. Patrizii and L. Pellegrino and E. Pennacchio and H. Pessard and V. Pilipenko and C. Pistillo and N. Polukhina and M. Pozzato and K. Pretzl and P. Publichenko and F. Pupilli and L. Raux and P. Repellin and R. Rescigno and D. Rizhikov and T. Roganova and G. Romano and G. Rosa and I. Rostovtseva and A. Rubbia and A. Russo and V. Ryasny and O. Ryazhskaya and A. Sadovski and C. Sanelli and O. Sato and Y. Sato and V. Saveliev and G. Sazhina and A. Schembri and {Schmidt Parzefall}, W. and H. Schroeder and Sch{\"u}tz, {H. U.} and J. Schuler and {Scotto Lavina}, L. and J. Serrano and H. Shibuya and S. Simone and M. Sioli and C. Sirignano and G. Sirri and Song, {J. S.} and M. Spinetti and L. Stanco and N. Starkov and M. Stipcevic and T. Strauss and P. Strolin and V. Sugonyaev and S. Takahashi and V. Talochkin and M. Tenti and V. Tereschenko and F. Terranova and I. Tezuka and V. Tioukov and P. Tolun and V. Tsarev and R. Tsenov and S. Tufanli and U. Ugolino and N. Ushida and {Van Beek}, G. and V. Verguilov and T. Viant and P. Vilain and M. Vladimirov and L. Votano and Vuilleumier, {J. L.} and T. Waelchli and M. Weber and G. Wilquet and B. Wonsak and J. Wurtz and V. Yakushev and Yoon, {C. S.} and Y. Zaitsev and A. Zghiche and R. Zimmermann",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
journal = "Journal of Instrumentation",
issn = "1748-0221",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The OPERA experiment in the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam

AU - Acquafredda, R.

AU - Adam, T.

AU - Agafonova, N.

AU - Alvarez Sanchez, P.

AU - Ambrosio, M.

AU - Anokhina, A.

AU - Aoki, S.

AU - Ariga, A.

AU - Ariga, T.

AU - Arrabito, L.

AU - Aufranc, C.

AU - Autiero, D.

AU - Badertscher, A.

AU - Bagulya, A.

AU - Baussan, E.

AU - Bergnoli, A.

AU - Bersani Greggio, F.

AU - Bertolin, A.

AU - Besnier, M.

AU - Biaré, D.

AU - Bick, D.

AU - Blin, S.

AU - Borer, K.

AU - Boucrot, J.

AU - Boutigny, D.

AU - Boyarkin, V.

AU - Bozza, C.

AU - Brugière, T.

AU - Brugnera, R.

AU - Brunetti, G.

AU - Buontempo, S.

AU - Campagne, J. E.

AU - Carlus, B.

AU - Carrara, E.

AU - Cazes, A.

AU - Chaussard, L.

AU - Chernyavsky, M.

AU - Chiarella, V.

AU - Chon-Sen, N.

AU - Chukanov, A.

AU - Ciesielski, R.

AU - Consiglio, L.

AU - Cozzi, M.

AU - D'Amato, G.

AU - Dal Corso, F.

AU - D'Ambrosio, N.

AU - Damet, J.

AU - De La Taille, C.

AU - De Lellis, G.

AU - Déclais, Y.

AU - Descombes, T.

AU - De Serio, M.

AU - Di Capua, F.

AU - Di Ferdinando, D.

AU - Di Giovanni, A.

AU - Di Marco, N.

AU - Di Troia, C.

AU - Dick, N.

AU - Dmitrievski, S.

AU - Dominjon, A.

AU - Dracos, M.

AU - Duchesneau, D.

AU - Dulach, B.

AU - Dusini, S.

AU - Ebert, J.

AU - Efthymiopoulos, I.

AU - Egorov, O.

AU - Elsener, K.

AU - Enikeev, R.

AU - Ereditato, A.

AU - Esposito, S.

AU - Fanin, C.

AU - Favier, J.

AU - Felici, G.

AU - Ferber, T.

AU - Fini, R.

AU - Fournier, L.

AU - Franceschi, A.

AU - Frekers, D.

AU - Fukuda, T.

AU - Fukushima, C.

AU - Galkin, V. I.

AU - Galkin, V. A.

AU - Gallet, R.

AU - Gardien, S.

AU - Garfagnini, A.

AU - Gaudiot, G.

AU - Giacomelli, G.

AU - Giorgini, M.

AU - Girerd, C.

AU - Goellnitz, C.

AU - Goeltzenlichter, T.

AU - Goldberg, J.

AU - Golubkov, D.

AU - Gornushkin, Y.

AU - Grapton, J. N.

AU - Grella, G.

AU - Grianti, F.

AU - Gschwendtner, E.

AU - Guerin, C.

AU - Guler, M.

AU - Gustavino, C.

AU - Guyonnet, J. L.

AU - Hagner, C.

AU - Hamane, T.

AU - Hara, T.

AU - Hauger, M.

AU - Hess, M.

AU - Hierholzer, M.

AU - Hoshino, K.

AU - Ieva, M.

AU - Incurvati, M.

AU - Jakovcic, K.

AU - Janicsko Csathy, J.

AU - Janutta, B.

AU - Jollet, C.

AU - Juget, F.

AU - Kazuyama, M.

AU - Kim, S. H.

AU - Khovansky, N.

AU - Kimura, M.

AU - Klicek, B.

AU - Knuesel, J.

AU - Kodama, K.

AU - Kolev, D.

AU - Komatsu, M.

AU - Kose, U.

AU - Krasnoperov, A.

AU - Kreslo, I.

AU - Krumstein, Z.

AU - Kutsenov, V. V.

AU - Kuznetsov, V. A.

AU - Laktineh, I.

AU - Lavy, M.

AU - Lazzaro, C.

AU - Le, T. D.

AU - Le Flour, T.

AU - Lenkeit, J.

AU - Lewis, J.

AU - Lieunard, S.

AU - Ljubicic, A.

AU - Longhin, A.

AU - Lutter, G.

AU - Malgin, A.

AU - Manai, K.

AU - Mandrioli, G.

AU - Marotta, A.

AU - Marteau, J.

AU - Martin-Chassard, G.

AU - Matveev, V.

AU - Mauri, N.

AU - Meddahi, M.

AU - Meisel, F.

AU - Meregaglia, A.

AU - Meschini, A.

AU - Messina, M.

AU - Migliozzi, P.

AU - Monacelli, P.

AU - Monteiro, I.

AU - Moreau, F.

AU - Morishima, K.

AU - Moser, U.

AU - Muciaccia, M. T.

AU - Mugnier, P.

AU - Naganawa, N.

AU - Nakamura, M.

AU - Nakano, T.

AU - Napolitano, T.

AU - Nikitina, V.

AU - Niwa, K.

AU - Nonoyama, Y.

AU - Nozdrin, A.

AU - Ogawa, S.

AU - Olchevski, A.

AU - Orlandi, D.

AU - Orlova, G.

AU - Osedlo, V.

AU - Ossetski, D.

AU - Paniccia, M.

AU - Paoloni, A.

AU - Park, B. D.

AU - Park, I. G.

AU - Pastore, A.

AU - Patrizii, L.

AU - Pellegrino, L.

AU - Pennacchio, E.

AU - Pessard, H.

AU - Pilipenko, V.

AU - Pistillo, C.

AU - Polukhina, N.

AU - Pozzato, M.

AU - Pretzl, K.

AU - Publichenko, P.

AU - Pupilli, F.

AU - Raux, L.

AU - Repellin, P.

AU - Rescigno, R.

AU - Rizhikov, D.

AU - Roganova, T.

AU - Romano, G.

AU - Rosa, G.

AU - Rostovtseva, I.

AU - Rubbia, A.

AU - Russo, A.

AU - Ryasny, V.

AU - Ryazhskaya, O.

AU - Sadovski, A.

AU - Sanelli, C.

AU - Sato, O.

AU - Sato, Y.

AU - Saveliev, V.

AU - Sazhina, G.

AU - Schembri, A.

AU - Schmidt Parzefall, W.

AU - Schroeder, H.

AU - Schütz, H. U.

AU - Schuler, J.

AU - Scotto Lavina, L.

AU - Serrano, J.

AU - Shibuya, H.

AU - Simone, S.

AU - Sioli, M.

AU - Sirignano, C.

AU - Sirri, G.

AU - Song, J. S.

AU - Spinetti, M.

AU - Stanco, L.

AU - Starkov, N.

AU - Stipcevic, M.

AU - Strauss, T.

AU - Strolin, P.

AU - Sugonyaev, V.

AU - Takahashi, S.

AU - Talochkin, V.

AU - Tenti, M.

AU - Tereschenko, V.

AU - Terranova, F.

AU - Tezuka, I.

AU - Tioukov, V.

AU - Tolun, P.

AU - Tsarev, V.

AU - Tsenov, R.

AU - Tufanli, S.

AU - Ugolino, U.

AU - Ushida, N.

AU - Van Beek, G.

AU - Verguilov, V.

AU - Viant, T.

AU - Vilain, P.

AU - Vladimirov, M.

AU - Votano, L.

AU - Vuilleumier, J. L.

AU - Waelchli, T.

AU - Weber, M.

AU - Wilquet, G.

AU - Wonsak, B.

AU - Wurtz, J.

AU - Yakushev, V.

AU - Yoon, C. S.

AU - Zaitsev, Y.

AU - Zghiche, A.

AU - Zimmermann, R.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.

AB - The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment has been designed to prove the appearance of ντ in a nearly pure νμ beam (CNGS) produced at CERN and detected in the underground Hall C of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, 730 km away from the source. In OPERA, τ leptons resulting from the interaction of ντ are produced in target units called bricks made of nuclear emulsion films interleaved with lead plates. The OPERA target contains 150000 of such bricks, for a total mass of 1.25 kton, arranged into walls interleaved with plastic scintillator strips. The detector is split into two identical supermodules, each supermodule containing a target section followed by a magnetic spectrometer for momentum and charge measurement of penetrating particles. Real time information from the scintillators and the spectrometers provide the identification of the bricks where the neutrino interactions occurred. The candidate bricks are extracted from the walls and, after X-ray marking and an exposure to cosmic rays for alignment, their emulsion films are developed and sent to the emulsion scanning laboratories to perform the accurate scan of the event. In this paper, we review the design and construction of the detector and of its related infrastructures, and report on some technical performances of the various components. The construction of the detector started in 2003 and it was completed in Summer 2008. The experiment is presently in the data taking phase. The whole sequence of operations has proven to be successful, from triggering to brick selection, development, scanning and event analysis.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=71049193140&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=71049193140&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018

DO - 10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04018

M3 - Article

VL - 4

JO - Journal of Instrumentation

JF - Journal of Instrumentation

SN - 1748-0221

IS - 4

M1 - P04018

ER -