The ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid and risk of cancer death in a Japanese community: The Hisayama Study

Masaharu Nagata, Jun Hata, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Naoko Mukai, Daigo Yoshida, Tomoyuki Ohara, Hiro Kishimoto, Hiroyuki Kawano, Takanari Kitazono, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya

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Abstract

Background: Whether the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or arachidonic acid (AA) affects the risk of cancer remains unclear, and the association between the serum EPA:AA ratio and cancer risk has not been fully evaluated in general populations. Methods: A total of 3098 community-dwelling subjects aged ≥40 years were followed up for 9.6 years (2002-2012). The levels of the serum EPA:AA ratio were categorized into quartiles (< 0.29, 0.29-0.41, 0.42-0.60, and > 0.60). The risk estimates were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The same analyses were conducted for the serum docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (DHA:AA) ratio and individual fatty acid concentrations. Results: During the follow-up period, 121 subjects died of cancer. Age- and sex-adjusted cancer mortality increased with lower serum EPA:AA ratio levels (P trend < 0.05). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the subjects in the first quartile of the serum EPA:AA ratio had a 1.93-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.22) greater risk of cancer death than those in the fourth quartile. Lower serum EPA concentrations were marginally associated with higher cancer mortality (P trend < 0.11), but the serum DHA or AA concentrations and the serum DHA:AA ratio were not (all P trend > 0.37). With regard to site-specific cancers, lower serum EPA:AA ratio was associated with a higher risk of death from liver cancer. However, no such associations were detected for deaths from other cancers. Conclusions: These findings suggest that decreased level of the serum EPA:AA ratio is a significant risk factor for cancer death in the general Japanese population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)578-583
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of epidemiology
Volume27
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017

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Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Arachidonic Acid
Serum
Neoplasms
Independent Living
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Liver Neoplasms
Proportional Hazards Models
Population
Fatty Acids
Odds Ratio
Mortality

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

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title = "The ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid and risk of cancer death in a Japanese community: The Hisayama Study",
abstract = "Background: Whether the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or arachidonic acid (AA) affects the risk of cancer remains unclear, and the association between the serum EPA:AA ratio and cancer risk has not been fully evaluated in general populations. Methods: A total of 3098 community-dwelling subjects aged ≥40 years were followed up for 9.6 years (2002-2012). The levels of the serum EPA:AA ratio were categorized into quartiles (< 0.29, 0.29-0.41, 0.42-0.60, and > 0.60). The risk estimates were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The same analyses were conducted for the serum docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (DHA:AA) ratio and individual fatty acid concentrations. Results: During the follow-up period, 121 subjects died of cancer. Age- and sex-adjusted cancer mortality increased with lower serum EPA:AA ratio levels (P trend < 0.05). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the subjects in the first quartile of the serum EPA:AA ratio had a 1.93-fold (95{\%} confidence interval, 1.15-3.22) greater risk of cancer death than those in the fourth quartile. Lower serum EPA concentrations were marginally associated with higher cancer mortality (P trend < 0.11), but the serum DHA or AA concentrations and the serum DHA:AA ratio were not (all P trend > 0.37). With regard to site-specific cancers, lower serum EPA:AA ratio was associated with a higher risk of death from liver cancer. However, no such associations were detected for deaths from other cancers. Conclusions: These findings suggest that decreased level of the serum EPA:AA ratio is a significant risk factor for cancer death in the general Japanese population.",
author = "Masaharu Nagata and Jun Hata and Yoichiro Hirakawa and Naoko Mukai and Daigo Yoshida and Tomoyuki Ohara and Hiro Kishimoto and Hiroyuki Kawano and Takanari Kitazono and Yutaka Kiyohara and Toshiharu Ninomiya",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.je.2017.01.004",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "578--583",
journal = "Journal of Epidemiology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid and risk of cancer death in a Japanese community

T2 - The Hisayama Study

AU - Nagata, Masaharu

AU - Hata, Jun

AU - Hirakawa, Yoichiro

AU - Mukai, Naoko

AU - Yoshida, Daigo

AU - Ohara, Tomoyuki

AU - Kishimoto, Hiro

AU - Kawano, Hiroyuki

AU - Kitazono, Takanari

AU - Kiyohara, Yutaka

AU - Ninomiya, Toshiharu

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Background: Whether the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or arachidonic acid (AA) affects the risk of cancer remains unclear, and the association between the serum EPA:AA ratio and cancer risk has not been fully evaluated in general populations. Methods: A total of 3098 community-dwelling subjects aged ≥40 years were followed up for 9.6 years (2002-2012). The levels of the serum EPA:AA ratio were categorized into quartiles (< 0.29, 0.29-0.41, 0.42-0.60, and > 0.60). The risk estimates were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The same analyses were conducted for the serum docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (DHA:AA) ratio and individual fatty acid concentrations. Results: During the follow-up period, 121 subjects died of cancer. Age- and sex-adjusted cancer mortality increased with lower serum EPA:AA ratio levels (P trend < 0.05). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the subjects in the first quartile of the serum EPA:AA ratio had a 1.93-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.22) greater risk of cancer death than those in the fourth quartile. Lower serum EPA concentrations were marginally associated with higher cancer mortality (P trend < 0.11), but the serum DHA or AA concentrations and the serum DHA:AA ratio were not (all P trend > 0.37). With regard to site-specific cancers, lower serum EPA:AA ratio was associated with a higher risk of death from liver cancer. However, no such associations were detected for deaths from other cancers. Conclusions: These findings suggest that decreased level of the serum EPA:AA ratio is a significant risk factor for cancer death in the general Japanese population.

AB - Background: Whether the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or arachidonic acid (AA) affects the risk of cancer remains unclear, and the association between the serum EPA:AA ratio and cancer risk has not been fully evaluated in general populations. Methods: A total of 3098 community-dwelling subjects aged ≥40 years were followed up for 9.6 years (2002-2012). The levels of the serum EPA:AA ratio were categorized into quartiles (< 0.29, 0.29-0.41, 0.42-0.60, and > 0.60). The risk estimates were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The same analyses were conducted for the serum docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (DHA:AA) ratio and individual fatty acid concentrations. Results: During the follow-up period, 121 subjects died of cancer. Age- and sex-adjusted cancer mortality increased with lower serum EPA:AA ratio levels (P trend < 0.05). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the subjects in the first quartile of the serum EPA:AA ratio had a 1.93-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.22) greater risk of cancer death than those in the fourth quartile. Lower serum EPA concentrations were marginally associated with higher cancer mortality (P trend < 0.11), but the serum DHA or AA concentrations and the serum DHA:AA ratio were not (all P trend > 0.37). With regard to site-specific cancers, lower serum EPA:AA ratio was associated with a higher risk of death from liver cancer. However, no such associations were detected for deaths from other cancers. Conclusions: These findings suggest that decreased level of the serum EPA:AA ratio is a significant risk factor for cancer death in the general Japanese population.

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