Objectives: Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid is a rare disease. It usually presents with locally advanced disease and has an overall poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and outcomes of patients with SCC of the thyroid, and reported our experience with chemotherapy with lenvatinib in the treatment of SCC of the thyroid. Methods: The management outcome of 10 patients who had SCC of the thyroid between January 2000 and 2015 at Kyushu University Hospital or associated facilities was reviewed. Results: There were 3 males and 7 females, ranging in age from 53 to 77 years. Extent of disease was staged as follows: stage IVA, 3 cases; stage IVB, 3 cases; stage IVC, 4 cases. Only tracheostomy was applied for 2 cases, surgical resection, such as total thyroidectomy and neck dissection, for the other 8 cases. Radiotherapy following surgical treatment was applied for 9 cases. Four patients started on oral lenvatinib due to recurrent or progressive SCC of the thyroid. The one year actuarial survival rate of patients was 22.7%. There was no 2-year survivor of all patients. Conclusions: Treatment should primarily be targeted at surgical resection with negative margins in patients with resectable disease. Lenvatinib may show promise to potentially extend survival.
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