In this study, the adhesive interaction between gold and epoxy resin is theoretically investigated. These materials make up crucial components of a wide range of electronic devices. The objectives of the study are (1) to elucidate the bonding mechanism between epoxy resin and a realistic gold surface, and (2) to obtain a device-design guideline for superior adhesion, thus reducing the bonding breakage that may potentially cause device failure. Die pad surfaces used in chip attachment methods for microelectronics are usually fabricated using an electrolytic plating technique. This technique involves ionic gold solutions like K[Au(CN)2]. The combined theoretical and experimental studies previously carried out by the authors have revealed that the CN- counteranion of the gold cation has a high affinity for gold and is likely to remain on the realistic gold surface generated by plating. However, the cyano group content on the surface of the plated gold is still unknown. Therefore, gold surfaces embedded with cyano groups with various coverages are constructed. The effect of the varying coverage of the cyano groups on the adhesion strength is inspected using first-principles density functional theory calculations. As the number of cyano groups on the surface increases, the direct interaction between the gold surface and the epoxy resin is hindered, but the hydroxy and amino groups in the epoxy resin and hardener form more hydrogen bonds with the cyano groups adsorbed on the surface. It is found that the surface with intermediate cyano coverage (about 33%) yields the highest adhesive strength.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces