Phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase 1 (PSS1) of mammalian cells is a multiple membrane-spanning protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and regulated by inhibition with the product PS. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of PSS1 has revealed eight amino acid residues as those crucial for its activity and six as those important for its regulation. Furthermore, three missense mutations in the human PSS1 gene, which lead to regulatory dysfunctions of PSS1 and are causative of Lenz–Majewski syndrome, have been identified. In this study, we investigated the membrane topology of PSS1 by means of epitope insertion and immunofluorescence. According to a 10-transmembrane segment model supported by topology analysis of PSS1, all the 8 amino acid residues crucial for the enzyme activity were localized to the luminal side of the lipid bilayer or the lumen of the ER, whereas all the 9 amino acid residues involved in the enzyme regulation were localized to the cytosol or the cytoplasmic side of the lipid bilayer of the ER. This localization of the functional amino acid residues suggests that PSS1 is regulated by inhibition with PS in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER membrane and synthesizes PS at the luminal leaflet.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology