Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but life-threatening complication after breast implant surgery. We describe a 77-year-old woman who developed toxic shock syndrome caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after breast implant reconstruction. Despite a high fever and markedly increased white blood cell count, suggesting severe infection, she initially had no symptoms of local findings, such as wound swelling and redness of the breast. Soon after diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome and removal of her breast implant, she was recovered from the shock state. To date, 16 cases of toxic shock syndrome have been reported, including this case, and they were related to breast implants or tissue expander surgery. The common and noteworthy characteristic of these cases was the lack of local findings, such as swelling or redness, which suggests infection. Therefore, early diagnosis is generally difficult, and the initiation of proper treatment can be delayed without knowledge of this characteristic. Toxic shock syndrome requires early diagnosis and treatment. If the patient has a deteriorated vital sign after breast implant surgery or tissue expander breast reconstruction, toxic shock syndrome should be suspected, even if there are no local signs of infection, and removal of the artifact should be considered as soon as possible.
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