Postoperative toxic shock syndrome (PTSS) caused by toxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus has incidentally been reported to be experienced following various surgical procedures or wounds. This syndrome includes sudden high fever, headache, muscle ache, a sunburn-like rash, hypotension, and tachycardia, while also often showing a rapid progression and a fatal outcome. To date, no such cases have ever been reported after thoracic surgery. We herein describe a highly probable case of PTSS in a 61-year-old man who underwent a pulmonary resection for lung cancer. The patient recovered after immediate and intensive antibiotic and steroid therapies. PTSS can occur incidentally even in the field of thoracic surgery; therefore, thoracic surgeons should be aware of this possible onset in order to recognize and treat this disease in a timely manner.
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