Combined tracheal resection and anterior mediastinal tracheostomy (AMT) for esophageal cancer with tracheal invasion is a challenging treatment because of its high morbidity and the lack of evidence regarding long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of AMT as part of the multidisciplinary treatment for esophageal cancer with tracheal invasion. This retrospective study included 27 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer with tracheal invasion who underwent combined tracheal resection and AMT in their multidisciplinary treatment for esophageal cancer. We evaluated postoperative complications, body weight loss, and survival and examined the prognostic value of preoperative factors. All patients underwent chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy as prior treatment. R0 resection was achieved in all cases. Clavien–Dindo grade I or greater complications occurred in 17 patients (63%), and grade III or greater complications occurred in 12 (44%). Overall in-hospital mortality was 4%, with one patient dying on postoperative day 48 when the brachiocephalic artery ruptured from tracheal compression. The 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 0% and 4%, respectively. Median weight change in patients without recurrence in the year after surgery was −1.7% (−9.6–21%). All of these patients received nutrition by oral intake and were living independently at home without public assistance. The 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 25.9% and 18.5%, respectively; 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 38.6% and 25.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified response to prior treatment as an independent prognostic factor in these patients. Combined tracheal resection and AMT may be adapted as part of the multidisciplinary treatment of esophageal cancer with tracheal invasion. Improving AMT safety and optimizing patient selection may improve prognosis among patients with this cancer.
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