The pathogenicity of Salmonella Typhimurium, a foodborne pathogen, is mainly attributed to its ability to form biofilm on food contact surfaces. ε-polylysine, a polymer of positively charged lysine, is reported to inhibit biofilm formation of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. To elucidate the mechanism underlying ε-polylysine-mediated inhibition of biofilm formation, the transcriptional profiles of ε-polylysine-treated and untreated Salmonella Typhimurium cells were comparatively analysed. The genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was performed using Salmonella Typhimurium incubated with 0.001% ε-polylysine in 0.1% Bacto Soytone at 30 °C for 2 h. The expression levels of genes involved in curli amyloid fibres and cellulose production, quorum sensing, and flagellar motility were downregulated, whereas those of genes associated with colanic acid synthesis were upregulated after treatment with ε-polylysine. The microarray results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, treatment with ε-polylysine decreased the production of colanic acid in Salmonella Typhimurium. The findings of this study improved our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ε-polylysine-mediated biofilm inhibition and may contribute to the development of new disinfectants to control biofilm during food manufacturing and storage.