Purpose: Simple and noninvasive vaccine administration alternatives to injections are desired. A solid-in-oil (S/O) nanodispersion system was able to overcome skin barriers and induce an immune response; however, antibody levels remained low. We applied an immune potentiator, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), to enhance the immune response by controlling the T helper 1 (Th1)/T helper 2 (Th2) balance. Methods: S/O nanodispersions containing ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG ODN (CpG-A or CpG-B) were characterized by size distribution analysis and a protein release test. The skin permeation of fluorescence-labeled OVA was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Antigen-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Co-encapsulation of CpG ODNs in S/O nanodispersions enhanced induction of OVA-specific IgG. S/O nanodispersion containing OVA and CpG-A had a smaller mean particle size and permeated the skin more efficiently. In contrast, CpG-B showed the highest protein release and induction of OVA-specific IgG. IgG subclass analysis revealed that OVA induced a Th2-dominant immune response, while the S/O nanodispersion containing CpG-A skewed the immune response toward a Th1-bias. Conclusions: In combination with CpG ODN, the S/O nanodispersion system efficiently induced an antigen-specific antibody response. The Th1/Th2 immune balance could be controlled by the selection of CpG ODN type.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Organic Chemistry
- Pharmacology (medical)