We herein report the results of the New TARGET study 2nd-line, which collected data on patients with chronic-phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who received a 2nd-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) because of resistance and/or to a 1st-line TKI. A total of 98 patients were enrolled intolerance between April 2010 and March 2013, and 82 patients were analyzed. The median age was 54 years (range 22–88 years). Seventy-six patients (93%) received imatinib as the 1st-line TKI. Forty-five (55%) and 37 (45%) patients began nilotinib and dasatinib treatments at entry, respectively. First-line TKI treatment achieved complete hematological response in 79 patients (96%) and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) in 49 patients (60%), respectively. Nine patients (11%) had BCR-ABL1 kinase domain point mutations at enrollment. The estimated 3-year progression-free-survival rate after enrollment was 98.7% (95% CI 91.1–99.8%). Overall, the probabilities of achieving CCyR and a major molecular response were 89.3% (95% CI 81.4–94.8%) and 87.2% (95% CI 78.1–93.8%), respectively. There were no new safety issues. This study demonstrated that CML-CP patients in Japan who are resistant and/or intolerant to a 1st-line TKI can achieve an extremely good outcome by 2nd-line TKI treatment.
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