Triplet–triplet upconversion, in which two triplet excitons are converted to one singlet exciton, is a well-known approach to exceed the limit of electroluminescence quantum efficiency in conventional fluorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes. Considering the spin multiplicity of triplet pairs, upconversion efficiency is usually limited to 20%. Although this limit can be exceeded when the energy of a triplet pair is lower than that of a second triplet excited state, such as for rubrene, it is generally difficult to engineer the energy levels of higher triplet excited states. Here, we investigate the upconversion efficiency of a series of new anthracene derivatives with different substituents. Some of these derivatives show upconversion efficiencies close to 50% even though the calculated energy levels of the second triplet excited states are lower than twice the lowest triplet energy. A possible upconversion mechanism is proposed based on the molecular structures and quantum chemical calculations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)