Tryptophan photo-product FICZ upregulates AHR/MEK/ERK-mediated MMP1 expression: Implications in anti-fibrotic phototherapy

Mika Murai, Kazuhiko Yamamura, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Gaku Tsuji, Masutaka Furue, Chikage Mitoma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Scleroderma is caused by aberrant transforming growth factor-ß signaling. The degradation of extracellular matrix proteins is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a therapy for scleroderma. 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand, is a tryptophan metabolite generated by UV exposure. Nonetheless, whether FICZ regulates MMPs and TIMPs has not been investigated. Objective: To elucidate the regulatory roles of FICZ in the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of MMPs or TIMPs in the NHDFs treated with FICZ or UVB. The MMPs levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The actions of FICZ on MMPs were analyzed using AHR-knockdown NHDFs or selective inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Microtubule-associated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was examined by western blotting. Results: UVB increased the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 and MMP3 in NHDFs, while FICZ upregulated those of MMP1, but not MMP3. The effects of FICZ on TIMPs were negligible. FICZ increased MMP1 expression in an AHR-dependent manner. The FICZ-induced MMP1 upregulation was ameliorated with MEK/ERK inhibitors, whereas the effects of UVB were canceled with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK as well as MEK/ERK inhibitors. FICZ-induced ERK phosphorylation is dependent on AHR. Conclusion: FICZ contributes to the UV-mediated anti-fibrotic effects via the AHR/MEK/ERK signal pathway in NHDFs. FICZ is a potential therapeutic agent for scleroderma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-103
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Dermatological Science
Volume91
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

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Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors
Phototherapy
Microtubule-Associated Proteins
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Tryptophan
Protein Kinases
Fibroblasts
Up-Regulation
Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
Skin
Phosphorylation
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Transforming Growth Factors
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Immunosorbents
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Polymerase chain reaction

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Dermatology

Cite this

Tryptophan photo-product FICZ upregulates AHR/MEK/ERK-mediated MMP1 expression : Implications in anti-fibrotic phototherapy. / Murai, Mika; Yamamura, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Tsuji, Gaku; Furue, Masutaka; Mitoma, Chikage.

In: Journal of Dermatological Science, Vol. 91, No. 1, 07.2018, p. 97-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Tryptophan photo-product FICZ upregulates AHR/MEK/ERK-mediated MMP1 expression: Implications in anti-fibrotic phototherapy",
abstract = "Background: Scleroderma is caused by aberrant transforming growth factor-{\ss} signaling. The degradation of extracellular matrix proteins is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a therapy for scleroderma. 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand, is a tryptophan metabolite generated by UV exposure. Nonetheless, whether FICZ regulates MMPs and TIMPs has not been investigated. Objective: To elucidate the regulatory roles of FICZ in the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of MMPs or TIMPs in the NHDFs treated with FICZ or UVB. The MMPs levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The actions of FICZ on MMPs were analyzed using AHR-knockdown NHDFs or selective inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Microtubule-associated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was examined by western blotting. Results: UVB increased the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 and MMP3 in NHDFs, while FICZ upregulated those of MMP1, but not MMP3. The effects of FICZ on TIMPs were negligible. FICZ increased MMP1 expression in an AHR-dependent manner. The FICZ-induced MMP1 upregulation was ameliorated with MEK/ERK inhibitors, whereas the effects of UVB were canceled with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK as well as MEK/ERK inhibitors. FICZ-induced ERK phosphorylation is dependent on AHR. Conclusion: FICZ contributes to the UV-mediated anti-fibrotic effects via the AHR/MEK/ERK signal pathway in NHDFs. FICZ is a potential therapeutic agent for scleroderma.",
author = "Mika Murai and Kazuhiko Yamamura and Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya and Gaku Tsuji and Masutaka Furue and Chikage Mitoma",
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T1 - Tryptophan photo-product FICZ upregulates AHR/MEK/ERK-mediated MMP1 expression

T2 - Implications in anti-fibrotic phototherapy

AU - Murai, Mika

AU - Yamamura, Kazuhiko

AU - Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko

AU - Tsuji, Gaku

AU - Furue, Masutaka

AU - Mitoma, Chikage

PY - 2018/7

Y1 - 2018/7

N2 - Background: Scleroderma is caused by aberrant transforming growth factor-ß signaling. The degradation of extracellular matrix proteins is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a therapy for scleroderma. 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand, is a tryptophan metabolite generated by UV exposure. Nonetheless, whether FICZ regulates MMPs and TIMPs has not been investigated. Objective: To elucidate the regulatory roles of FICZ in the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of MMPs or TIMPs in the NHDFs treated with FICZ or UVB. The MMPs levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The actions of FICZ on MMPs were analyzed using AHR-knockdown NHDFs or selective inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Microtubule-associated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was examined by western blotting. Results: UVB increased the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 and MMP3 in NHDFs, while FICZ upregulated those of MMP1, but not MMP3. The effects of FICZ on TIMPs were negligible. FICZ increased MMP1 expression in an AHR-dependent manner. The FICZ-induced MMP1 upregulation was ameliorated with MEK/ERK inhibitors, whereas the effects of UVB were canceled with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK as well as MEK/ERK inhibitors. FICZ-induced ERK phosphorylation is dependent on AHR. Conclusion: FICZ contributes to the UV-mediated anti-fibrotic effects via the AHR/MEK/ERK signal pathway in NHDFs. FICZ is a potential therapeutic agent for scleroderma.

AB - Background: Scleroderma is caused by aberrant transforming growth factor-ß signaling. The degradation of extracellular matrix proteins is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a therapy for scleroderma. 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand, is a tryptophan metabolite generated by UV exposure. Nonetheless, whether FICZ regulates MMPs and TIMPs has not been investigated. Objective: To elucidate the regulatory roles of FICZ in the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of MMPs or TIMPs in the NHDFs treated with FICZ or UVB. The MMPs levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The actions of FICZ on MMPs were analyzed using AHR-knockdown NHDFs or selective inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Microtubule-associated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was examined by western blotting. Results: UVB increased the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 and MMP3 in NHDFs, while FICZ upregulated those of MMP1, but not MMP3. The effects of FICZ on TIMPs were negligible. FICZ increased MMP1 expression in an AHR-dependent manner. The FICZ-induced MMP1 upregulation was ameliorated with MEK/ERK inhibitors, whereas the effects of UVB were canceled with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK as well as MEK/ERK inhibitors. FICZ-induced ERK phosphorylation is dependent on AHR. Conclusion: FICZ contributes to the UV-mediated anti-fibrotic effects via the AHR/MEK/ERK signal pathway in NHDFs. FICZ is a potential therapeutic agent for scleroderma.

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