We report on a 44-year-old man who developed tuberculosis 4 months after liver transplantation. The diagnosis was confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and the patient was successfully treated by reducing his immunosuppression and administering antituberculous drugs. The patient became afebrile 20 days after starting antituberculous therapy and remains well at home. A review of the literature revealed that tuberculosis after liver transplantation is a rare complication with a reported mortality rate of as high as 40%. The mortality is highest for patients who become symptomatic within 3 months after transplantation (83% vs 0%, P < 0.01; Fisher's exact test) and for those with an interval between the initial symptom and diagnosis of more than 2 weeks (71% vs 0%, P < 0.05). Early diagnosis is, therefore, essential for successful resolution of tuberculosis after liver transplantation.
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