Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce not only bone formation in vivo but also osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cells in vitro. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibits both osteoblast differentiation and bone formation induced by BMPs. However, the molecular mechanisms of these inhibitions remain unknown. In this study, we found that TNTα inhibited the alkaline phosphatase activity and markedly reduced BMP2-and Smad-induced reporter activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. TNFα had no effect on the phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 or on the nuclear translocation of the Smad1-Smad4 complex. In p65-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, overexpression of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, inhibited BMP2- and Smad-induced reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this p65-mediated inhibition of BMP2- and Smad-responsive promoter activity was restored after inhibition of NF-κB by the overexpression of the dominant negative IκBα. Although TNFα failed to affect receptor-dependent formation of the Smad1-Smad4 complex, p65 associated with the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis mobility shift assays revealed that TNFα suppressed the DNA binding of Smad proteins to the target gene. Importantly, the specific NF-κB inhibitor, BAY11-7082, abolished these phenomena. These results suggest that TNFα inhibits BMP signaling by interfering with the DNA binding of Smads through the activation of NF-κB.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology