Measurements with a toroidally and poloidally displaced three-dimensional set of Langmuir probe arrays have revealed details of turbulence, geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), zonal flows and their interactions in the edge region of HL-2A tokamak plasmas. The coexistence of intensive low frequency zonal flows (LFZFs) off < 4 kHz and the GAMs of 7 kHz < fGAM < 20 kHz has been unambiguously demonstrated. The poloidal and toroidal symmetries of the flows, including the GAMs, are verified experimentally. In particular, the coherency of the flows over a large toroidal scale of 2100mm at a magnetic flux surface is emphasized. The LFZF packets are shown to propagate outward and inward as equally likely events, whereas the predominantly outward propagation of the GAM packets is analyzed. The nonlinear three-wave coupling of the flows with ambient turbulence is shown with a bicoherency analysis and an envelope modulation of the latter by the former. The intensity of the LFZFs is observed to increase and decrease with increases in ECRH power (̃300-700 kW) and safety factor q ̃ (3.5-6.2), respectively, whereas the intensity of the GAMs increases with increases in both ECRH power and q.
|Journal||Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2010|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Condensed Matter Physics