Twist Angle-Dependent Molecular Intercalation and Sheet Resistance in Bilayer Graphene

Yuji Araki, Pablo Solís-Fernández, Yung Chang Lin, Amane Motoyama, Kenji Kawahara, Mina Maruyama, Yanlin Gao, Rika Matsumoto, Kazu Suenaga, Susumu Okada, Hiroki Ago

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bilayer graphene (BLG) has a two-dimensional (2D) interlayer nanospace that can be used to intercalate molecules and ions, resulting in a significant change of its electronic and magnetic properties. Intercalation of BLG with different materials, such as FeCl3, MoCl5, Li ions, and Ca ions, has been demonstrated. However, little is known about how the twist angle of the BLG host affects intercalation. Here, by using artificially stacked BLG with controlled twist angles, we systematically investigated the twist angle dependence of intercalation of metal chlorides. We discovered that BLG with high twist angles of >15° is more favorable for intercalation than BLG with low twist angles. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the weaker interlayer coupling in high twist angle BLG is the key for effective intercalation. Scanning transmission electron microscope observations revealed that co-intercalation of AlCl3 and CuCl2 molecules into BLG gives various 2D structures in the confined interlayer nanospace. Moreover, before intercalation we observed a significantly lower sheet resistance in BLG with high twist angles (281 ± 98 ω/) than that in AB stacked BLG (580 ± 124 ω/). Intercalation further decreased the sheet resistance, reaching values as low as 48 ω/, which is the lowest value reported so far for BLG. This work provides a twist angle-dependent phenomenon, in which enhanced intercalation and drastic changes of the electrical properties can be realized by controlling the stacking angle of adjacent graphene layers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS nano
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Twist Angle-Dependent Molecular Intercalation and Sheet Resistance in Bilayer Graphene'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this