Two closely-related left-right asymmetrically expressed genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2: Their distinct expression domains, chromosomal linkage and direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos

Chikara Meno, Yuzuru Ito, Yukio Saijoh, Youichi Matsuda, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Hiroshi Hamada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

218 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFβ-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. Results: We have identified two highly conserved genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2, in the mouse genome. These two genes are tightly linked on mouse chromosome 1. lefty-1 and lefty-2 are both expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion in mouse embryos. However, the major expression domains of the two genes are different: lefty-1 expression is predominantly confied to the left side of ventral neural tube, whereas lefty-2 is strongly expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm on the left side. In embryos homozygous for the iv and inv mutation, which cause situs inversus, the expression sites of both genes are affected, either reversed or bilaterally, indicating that lefty-1 and lefty-2 are downstream of iv and inv. Although Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 prepro-proteins are not readily processed in cultured cells, BMP2-Lefty chimeric proteins can be processed to a secreted form. We have examined the activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 in Xenopus embryos. In animal cap explants, Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 induce neural cells in the absence of mesoderm induction. The direct neuralizing activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 thus seem remarkably similar to those of BMP antagonists such as noggin and chordin, suggesting that the action of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 may be to locally antagonize BMP (bone morphogenic protein)-mediated signals in tissues positioned on the left side of the mouse embryos. Conclusion: There are two lefty genes in mice (lefty-1 and lefty-2), both of which are expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion and are downstream of iv and inv. Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 possess direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos, resembling the activities of BMP antagonists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)513-524
Number of pages12
JournalGenes to Cells
Volume2
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Xenopus
Embryonic Structures
Genes
Mesoderm
Left-Right Determination Factors
Bone and Bones
Proteins
Situs Inversus
Neural Tube
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
Vertebrates
Cultured Cells
Genome
Mutation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Two closely-related left-right asymmetrically expressed genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2 : Their distinct expression domains, chromosomal linkage and direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos. / Meno, Chikara; Ito, Yuzuru; Saijoh, Yukio; Matsuda, Youichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Hamada, Hiroshi.

In: Genes to Cells, Vol. 2, No. 8, 01.01.1997, p. 513-524.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{d3e404ac9fa64f838074e71a1c9709e9,
title = "Two closely-related left-right asymmetrically expressed genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2: Their distinct expression domains, chromosomal linkage and direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos",
abstract = "Background: Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFβ-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. Results: We have identified two highly conserved genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2, in the mouse genome. These two genes are tightly linked on mouse chromosome 1. lefty-1 and lefty-2 are both expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion in mouse embryos. However, the major expression domains of the two genes are different: lefty-1 expression is predominantly confied to the left side of ventral neural tube, whereas lefty-2 is strongly expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm on the left side. In embryos homozygous for the iv and inv mutation, which cause situs inversus, the expression sites of both genes are affected, either reversed or bilaterally, indicating that lefty-1 and lefty-2 are downstream of iv and inv. Although Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 prepro-proteins are not readily processed in cultured cells, BMP2-Lefty chimeric proteins can be processed to a secreted form. We have examined the activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 in Xenopus embryos. In animal cap explants, Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 induce neural cells in the absence of mesoderm induction. The direct neuralizing activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 thus seem remarkably similar to those of BMP antagonists such as noggin and chordin, suggesting that the action of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 may be to locally antagonize BMP (bone morphogenic protein)-mediated signals in tissues positioned on the left side of the mouse embryos. Conclusion: There are two lefty genes in mice (lefty-1 and lefty-2), both of which are expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion and are downstream of iv and inv. Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 possess direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos, resembling the activities of BMP antagonists.",
author = "Chikara Meno and Yuzuru Ito and Yukio Saijoh and Youichi Matsuda and Kosuke Tashiro and Satoru Kuhara and Hiroshi Hamada",
year = "1997",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1046/j.1365-2443.1997.1400338.x",
language = "English",
volume = "2",
pages = "513--524",
journal = "Genes to Cells",
issn = "1356-9597",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Two closely-related left-right asymmetrically expressed genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2

T2 - Their distinct expression domains, chromosomal linkage and direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos

AU - Meno, Chikara

AU - Ito, Yuzuru

AU - Saijoh, Yukio

AU - Matsuda, Youichi

AU - Tashiro, Kosuke

AU - Kuhara, Satoru

AU - Hamada, Hiroshi

PY - 1997/1/1

Y1 - 1997/1/1

N2 - Background: Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFβ-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. Results: We have identified two highly conserved genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2, in the mouse genome. These two genes are tightly linked on mouse chromosome 1. lefty-1 and lefty-2 are both expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion in mouse embryos. However, the major expression domains of the two genes are different: lefty-1 expression is predominantly confied to the left side of ventral neural tube, whereas lefty-2 is strongly expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm on the left side. In embryos homozygous for the iv and inv mutation, which cause situs inversus, the expression sites of both genes are affected, either reversed or bilaterally, indicating that lefty-1 and lefty-2 are downstream of iv and inv. Although Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 prepro-proteins are not readily processed in cultured cells, BMP2-Lefty chimeric proteins can be processed to a secreted form. We have examined the activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 in Xenopus embryos. In animal cap explants, Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 induce neural cells in the absence of mesoderm induction. The direct neuralizing activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 thus seem remarkably similar to those of BMP antagonists such as noggin and chordin, suggesting that the action of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 may be to locally antagonize BMP (bone morphogenic protein)-mediated signals in tissues positioned on the left side of the mouse embryos. Conclusion: There are two lefty genes in mice (lefty-1 and lefty-2), both of which are expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion and are downstream of iv and inv. Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 possess direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos, resembling the activities of BMP antagonists.

AB - Background: Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFβ-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. Results: We have identified two highly conserved genes, lefty-1 and lefty-2, in the mouse genome. These two genes are tightly linked on mouse chromosome 1. lefty-1 and lefty-2 are both expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion in mouse embryos. However, the major expression domains of the two genes are different: lefty-1 expression is predominantly confied to the left side of ventral neural tube, whereas lefty-2 is strongly expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm on the left side. In embryos homozygous for the iv and inv mutation, which cause situs inversus, the expression sites of both genes are affected, either reversed or bilaterally, indicating that lefty-1 and lefty-2 are downstream of iv and inv. Although Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 prepro-proteins are not readily processed in cultured cells, BMP2-Lefty chimeric proteins can be processed to a secreted form. We have examined the activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 in Xenopus embryos. In animal cap explants, Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 induce neural cells in the absence of mesoderm induction. The direct neuralizing activities of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 thus seem remarkably similar to those of BMP antagonists such as noggin and chordin, suggesting that the action of Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 may be to locally antagonize BMP (bone morphogenic protein)-mediated signals in tissues positioned on the left side of the mouse embryos. Conclusion: There are two lefty genes in mice (lefty-1 and lefty-2), both of which are expressed in a L-R asymmetric fashion and are downstream of iv and inv. Lefty-1 and Lefty-2 possess direct neuralizing activity in Xenopus embryos, resembling the activities of BMP antagonists.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031196157&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031196157&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1046/j.1365-2443.1997.1400338.x

DO - 10.1046/j.1365-2443.1997.1400338.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 9348041

AN - SCOPUS:0031196157

VL - 2

SP - 513

EP - 524

JO - Genes to Cells

JF - Genes to Cells

SN - 1356-9597

IS - 8

ER -