ABSTRACT Surface-wave tomography has great potential to improve the lateral resolution of near-surface characterization compared to 2D surface-wave analysis with multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Surface-wave tomography has been widely applied to obtain high-resolution maps of phase or group velocity from dispersion curves between pairs of stations in seismological studies. However, very few studies have done surface-wave tomography with active-source (exploration) seismic data, probably because extracting surface-wave dispersion curves between two stations is difficult due to the complex wave propagation in heterogeneous near-surface structures. Here, we describe a method to estimate reliable phase-velocity dispersion curves between two stations from exploration seismic data. In our approach, we compute cross coherences between pairs of stations to extract phase information, stacking the cross coherences from different shot gathers to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. To further distinguish surface-wave signals from noise in the time domain, we perform a time-frequency analysis using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on the stacked cross coherences. We used modeling of the wavelet transform between station pairs to extract phase-velocity dispersion curves from the stacked cross coherences. We apply this two-station CWT cross-coherence method to synthetic and field data sets. Both applications demonstrate that our method can extract stable phase-velocity dispersion curves between two stations better than two-station or multistation analysis without time-domain filtering. In phase-velocity distributions constructed by surface-wave tomography from the dispersion curves between two stations, the horizontal resolution is improved over MASW-based analyses. Improvement of the horizontal resolution is also achieved in S-wave velocity structures derived by inversion of the phase-velocity distributions. Our method is effective in estimating reliable phase-velocity dispersion curves and may contribute to constructing high-resolution S-wave velocity models located with a laterally heterogeneous structure, by subsequent surface-wave tomography and S-wave velocity inversion.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geochemistry and Petrology