To increase insight into the structural basis of CXCR4 utilization in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a new generation of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was developed in WKA rats. The A80 MAb, which binds an epitope in the third extracellular loop (ECL3) of CXCR4, has unique biologic properties that provide novel insights into CXCR4 function. This agent enhanced syncytium formation in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with X4 or R5 and CEM cells infected with X4 HIV-1 strains. Exposure to A80 increased the productive infection of activated CD4+ T cells and CEM cells with R5 and X4 viruses, respectively. This antibody uniquely induced agglutination of PBMC and CEM cells but did not activate calcium mobilization. Agglutination induced by A80 was inhibited by stromal cell-derived factor 1, T22, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate but was not significantly altered by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin, wortmannin, or MAbs to LFA-1, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-3. The binding of the A145 and A120 MAbs was mapped to the N-terminal extracellular domain and a conformational epitope involving ECL1 and ECL2, respectively. Both of these MAbs inhibited HIV-1 infection and lacked the novel properties of A80. These results suggest a new role for CXCR4 in homologous lymphocyte adhesion that is ligand independent and in HIV-1 infection.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of virology|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science