In the present study we evaluated the feasibility of unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The outcome of 31 SAA patients (median age 28; range: 0.9-72.3 years old) who received UCBT was analyzed. The cumulative incidences of the neutrophil and platelet recovery after UCBT were 54.8 and 72.2%, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.0%-70.3% and 51.3%-85.3%, respectively). The cumulative incidences of grade ≥II acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) were 17.1% (95% CI = 6.2%-32.8%) and 19.7% (95% CI = 6.2%-38.8%), respectively. Currently, 13 patients are alive, having survived for 33.7 months (median; range: 6-77 months) after UCBT. The probability of overall survival (OS) at 2 years was 41.1% (95% CI = 23.8%-57.7%). A conditioning regimen that included low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) (2-5 Gy), fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide resulted in a favorable OS (80%; 95% CI = 20.4%-96.9%). This result suggests that UCBT using the optimal conditioning regimen can be a salvage treatment for patients without a suitable bone marrow donor and warrants evaluation in further prospective studies.
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