Emerging evidence indicates that the tight communication between vascular endothelial cells and mural cells using platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is essential for capillary stabilization during the angiogenic process. However, little is known about the related regulator that determines PDGF-BB expression. Using murine models of therapeutic neovascularization, we here show that a typical lymphangiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, is an essential regulator determining PDGF-BB expression for vascular stabilization via a paracrine mode of action. The blockade of VEGF type 3 receptor (VEGFR3) using neutralizing antibody AFL-4 abrogated FGF-2-mediated limb salvage and blood flow recovery in severely ischemic hindlimb. Interestingly, inhibition of VEGFR3 activity not only diminished lymphangiogenesis, but induced marked dilatation of capillary vessels, showing mural cell dissociation. In these mice, VEGF-C and PDGF-B were upregulated in the later phase after induced ischemia, on day 7, when exogenous FGF-2 expression had already declined, and blockade of VEGFR3 or PDGF-BB activities diminished PDGF-B or VEGF-C expression, respectively. These results clearly indicate that VEGF-C is a critical mediator, not only for lymphangiogenesis, but also for capillary stabilization, the essential molecular mechanism of communication between endothelial cells and mural cells during neovascularization.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 1 2009|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)