Visualizing similarity of appearance by arrangement of cards

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1 Citation (Scopus)


This study proposes a novel method to extract the configuration of the psychological space by directly measuring subjects' similarity rating without computational work. Although multidimensional scaling (MDS) is well-known as a conventional method for extracting the psychological space, the method requires many pairwise evaluations. The times taken for evaluations increase in proportion to the square of the number of objects in MDS. The proposed method asks subjects to arrange cards on a poster sheet according to the degree of similarity of the objects. To compare the performance of the proposed method with the conventional one, we developed similarity maps of typefaces through the proposed method and through non-metric MDS. We calculated the trace correlation coefficient among all combinations of the configuration for both methods to evaluate the degree of similarity in the obtained configurations. The threshold value of trace correlation coefficient for statistically discriminating similar configuration was decided based on random data. The ratio of the trace correlation coefficient exceeding the threshold value was 62.0% so that the configurations of the typefaces obtained by the proposed method closely resembled those obtained by non-metric MDS. The required duration for the proposed method was approximately one third of the non-metric MDS's duration. In addition, all distances between objects in all the data for both methods were calculated. The frequency for the short distance in the proposed method was lower than that of the non-metric MDS so that a relatively small difference was likely to be emphasized among objects in the configuration by the proposed method. The card arrangement method we here propose, thus serves as a easier and time-saving tool to obtain psychological structures in the fields related to similarity of appearance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number698
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberMAY
Publication statusPublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)


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