Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the widely targeted metabolome and transcriptome profiles of Allium fistulosum L. (FF) with the single extra chromosome of shallot [A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (AA)] to clarify the novel gene functions in flavonoid biosynthesis. An exhaustive metabolome analysis was performed using the selected reaction monitoring mode of liquid chromatography–tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry, revealing a specific accumulation of quercetin, anthocyanin and flavone glucosides in AA and FF5A. The addition of chromosome 5A from the shallot to A. fistulosum induced flavonoid accumulation in the recipient species, which was associated with the upregulation of several genes including the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase-like, pleiotropic drug resistance-like ATP binding cassette transporter, and MYB14 transcriptional factor. Additionally, an open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated by using RNA-Seq data from different genetic stocks including the A. fistulosum–A. cepa monosomic addition lines. The functional genomic approach presented here provides an innovative means of targeting the gene responsible for flavonoid biosynthesis in A. cepa. The understanding of flavonoid compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of noble Allium varieties with unique chemical constituents and, subsequently, improved plant stress tolerance and human health benefits.
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