Zebra stripes through the eyes of their predators, zebras, and humans

Amanda D. Melin, Donald W. Kline, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Tim Caro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of antipredator camouflage.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0145679
JournalPloS one
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016

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Camouflage
zebras
Equidae
Luminance
eyes
Color
predators
Lions
Panthera leo
carnivores
Hyaenidae
Crypsis dual-cure adhesive
animal morphology
Herbivory
digital images
ungulates
Ecosystem
woodlands
herbivores

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

Zebra stripes through the eyes of their predators, zebras, and humans. / Melin, Amanda D.; Kline, Donald W.; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim.

In: PloS one, Vol. 11, No. 1, e0145679, 01.01.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Melin, Amanda D. ; Kline, Donald W. ; Hiramatsu, Chihiro ; Caro, Tim. / Zebra stripes through the eyes of their predators, zebras, and humans. In: PloS one. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 1.
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