1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG) is a gallotannin isolated from various plants. In a previous study, it was reported that PGG suppressed interleukin (IL)-4 induced signal pathway in B cell which is indispensable for immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. However, the suppressive effect of PGG on IgE production in allergen-sensitized mice remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of PGG on IgE production in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. Mice orally administered PGG showed a decrease in total and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum. Oral administration of PGG strongly suppressed production of type 2 T helper (IL-4 and IL-13), type 1 T helper (IFN-γ), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), but not anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) from splenocytes of OVA-sensitized mice against OVA re-stimulation. A population of T regulatory (Treg) cells with immunosuppressive properties was increased in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen of PGG-fed mice. PGG administration not only reduced expression levels of eotaxin, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1, and TNF-α, which assisted with IgE production, but also increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 which inhibits IgE production. Additionally, PGG increased the levels of Treg cell-inducing factors such as IL-2, IL-10 and platelet factor-4 in serum. These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of PGG on IgE production could be partially caused by increasing a population of Treg cells in conjunction with Treg-inducing factors.
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