X-ray microtomography (XMT) has been utilized for observing deformation, damage and fracture behaviors in structural materials. In-situ observation using XMT provides a unique possibility to access time evolution behaviors at a microscopic level. Local strain mapping is enabled by image-processing a series of three-dimensional (3D) images by particle tracking technique. Procedures for tracking microstructural features which have been developed by the authors, are reviewed in this article. Local crack driving forces can be measured from discrete crack tip displacement fields as well as simple 3D strain mapping. Recent extension to crystallographic measurements is also introduced.