Although murine γδ T cells are largely considered innate immune cells, they have recently been reported to form long-lived memory populations. Much remains unknown about the biology and specificity of memory γδ T cells. Here, we interrogated intestinal memory Vγ4 Vδ1 T cells generated after foodborne Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection to uncover an unanticipated complexity in the specificity of these cells. Deep TCR sequencing revealed that a subset of non-canonical Vδ1 clones are selected by Lm infection, consistent with antigen-specific clonal expansion. Ex vivo stimulations and in vivo heterologous challenge infections with diverse pathogenic bacteria revealed that Lm-elicited memory Vγ4 Vδ1 T cells are broadly reactive. The Vγ4 Vδ1 T cell recall response to Lm, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm) and Citrobacter rodentium was largely mediated by the γδTCR as internalizing the γδTCR prevented T cell expansion. Both broadly-reactive canonical and pathogen-selected non-canonical Vδ1 clones contributed to memory responses to Lm and STm. Interestingly, some non-canonical γδ T cell clones selected by Lm infection also responded after STm infection, suggesting some level of cross-reactivity. These findings underscore the promiscuous nature of memory γδ T cells and suggest that pathogen-elicited memory γδ T cells are potential targets for broad-spectrum anti-infective vaccines.
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