Congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) may present with cholestasis in the neonate or during early infancy. However, its precise mechanism is unknown. A 3-mo-old boy presented with cryptorchidism and hypoplastic scrotum after birth. Neonatal jaundice was noted but temporarily improved with phototherapy. Jaundice recurred at 2 mo of age. Elevated direct bilirubin (D-Bil) and liver dysfunction were found but cholangiography showed no signs of biliary atresia (BA). Liver biopsy findings showed giant cell formation of hepatocytes with hypoplastic bile ducts. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed a hypoplastic pituitary gland with an ectopic posterior lobe, and the patient was diagnosed with congenital CPHD based on decreased secretion of cortisol and GH by the pituitary anterior lobe load test. D-Bil levels promptly improved after hydrocortisone (HDC) replacement. We subsequently began replacement with levothyroxine (L-T4) and GH, and liver histology showed normal interlobular bile ducts at 8 mo old. This is the first case report of proven histological improvement after hormone replacement therapy. This suggested that pituitary-mediated hormones, especially cortisol, might be involved in the development of the bile ducts.
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