Tubo-ovarian abscess is an uncommon complication in pregnant women. In this report, we present a patient who developed a tubo-ovarian abscess during pregnancy following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Despite treatment with intravenous antibiotics she delivered at 22 weeks of gestation. After delivery, she underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy. Review of the literature revealed only 26 reported cases of tubo-ovarian or pelvic abscess during pregnancy. Pelvic inflammatory disease, previous laparotomy, and structural genital anomalies are known risk factors for pelvic abscess during pregnancy. Pelvic abscess resulting as a complication of vaginal oocyte retrieval has been reported. Therefore, although enabling women with organic pelvic disease such as endometriosis and hydrosalpinx to achieve pregnancy, assisted reproductive techniques may potentially result in pelvic infection during pregnancy. This case suggests that a preconception evaluation and treatment for such conditions should be considered for women undergoing treatment for infertility.
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