A 64-year-old male developed headache, dizziness, and difficulty hearing, two years after an operation for chronic subdural hematoma due to head injury. These symptoms gradually worsened over the following 15 years. As he showed bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and marginal hypointensity on the surface of the brain and spinal cord on T2/T2∗-weighted MRI, he was diagnosed with superficial siderosis (SS), although the source of the bleeding was unclear and anti-hemorrhagic drugs were ineffective. When he was admitted to our hospital, neurological examination disclosed horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, severe bilateral hearing loss, scanning speech, and limb and truncal ataxia. CISS (constructive interference in steady state) MRI detected a dural defect at the Th2-3 level on the anterior side of the spinal canal. On operation, a 2 mm × 6 mm size dural defect with blood clots was found at the Th2-3 level. After closure of the dural defect, bloody CSF became transparent, and his persistent headache, dizziness, and hearing impairment improved. Brain and whole spine MRI, especially CISS imaging, should be considered for detecting the source of bleeding in intractable cases of SS.
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