Severe oral mucositis developed in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) accompanies intolerable pain and risk for systemic bacteremia infection. Conventional stem cell transplantation (CST) and reduced-intensity regimens for allogeneic HSCT (RIST) may differently affect the occurrence and severity of oral mucositis. Here, we comparatively examined oral mucositis in patients undergoing CST and that in RIST patients to search for measures to alleviate oral mucositis. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 130 consecutive patients undergoing HSCT (conventional, 60; RIST, 70). Oral mucositis was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. We also investigated the risk factors for severe oral mucositis in each regimen. The incidence of oral mucositis was not significantly different between RIST and CST patients. The use of opioid analgesics to control pain due to oral mucositis was significantly less in patients undergoing RIST compared with those receiving CST. The risk factors for severe oral mucositis, determined by univariate and multivariate analyses, were "younger age (<40)" in CST and "longer duration of neutropenia (≥14 days)" in RIST. Although the incidences of oral mucositis were almost the same, the need for opioid analgesics and the risk factors for severe oral mucositis differed between CST and RIST patients.
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