Background: The present study was designed to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 after surgical resection is feasible in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), using a multi-institutional trial. Methods: From July 2009 to July 2011, 25 patients received the following regimen: 2 weeks of administration and 1 week of withdrawal of S-1 at 50-100 mg/body per day in an outpatient setting. The primary endpoint of this trial was the completion rate of eight cycles. Results: The completion rate of eight cycles was 70.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 52.7-89.0 %]. The perfect completion rate of eight cycles on schedule with full doses without delays was 50 % (95 % CI 30.0-70.0 %). The reasons for incomplete cycles were: patient refusal in four cases, anorexia in two cases and thrombocytopenia in one case. As a consequence of delays and/or dose reductions, the relative dose intensity of S-1 was 76.3 %. Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 at a reduced dose and schedule was therefore found to be a feasible treatment for elderly Japanese patients who had undergone surgical resection for NSCLC (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number UMIN000002383).
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