A new methodology for conversion of inert surfaces to biocompatible surfaces was proposed. A gold plate, a quartz plate, a silicon wafer, and a Teflon sheet were selected as substrates. The surfaces of the first three substrates were hydroxylated by chemical methods, and the Teflon surface was activated by oxygen plasma treatment. A titania layer was adsorbed on these substrates to provide active surfaces for adsorption of biomolecules. The adsorption process of four representative biomolecules (collagen, fibrinogen, insulin, and heparin) was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The adsorbed proteins were stably bound up to 60 °C and at a wide pH range. The biological activity of adsorbed fibrinogen was confirmed by treatment with thrombin to produce a fibrin network on the surface, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy.
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