Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after childbirth may affect mother-infant bonding. This study examined the relationship between aspects of PTSS after childbirth and bonding failure for mothers at 1 month and 4 months after delivery. Methods: This longitudinal study surveyed 130 mothers at 1 month (T1) and 4 months (T2) after delivery. We performed multiple regression analysis with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) as the dependent variable and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve score (F.APGAR), and demographic data as independent variables. Results: The rate of mothers with an IES-R score of ≥ 25 was 6.2% at T1 and 3.8% at T2. The IES-R and the EPDS were relevant factors for the PBQ at T1. The IES-R was not a relevant factor, but the EPDS was a relevant factor for the PBQ at T2. The IES-R at T1 was not a predictor for the PBQ at T2. The PBQ at T1 was the largest predictor for the PBQ at T2, when compared with the EPDS, F.APGAR, and dismissive attachment pattern (RQ) at T1. Conclusions: PTSS after childbirth had a strong influence on bonding failure at T1. However, the important factor affecting bonding failure was not PTSS after childbirth, but depression at T2. If PTSS after childbirth are accompanied by depression at T2, bonding failure may be affected. Bonding failure affected by PTSS after childbirth at T1 could affect bonding failure at T2. Health professionals should assess the degree of PTSS after childbirth and start to care for mothers at T1.
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