The standard treatment for pathological N2 Stage III non-small cell lung cancer with negative surgical margins in Japan is cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. However, recent studies suggest that the addition of thoracic radiotherapy after adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival. While thoracic radiotherapy is considered to prolong survival by improving locoregional control, it is known to increase radiation-induced adverse events. We began a randomized controlled trial in January 2021 in Japan to confirm the superiority of radiotherapy over observation after adjuvant chemotherapy in pathological N2 Stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients with negative surgical margins. We aim to accrue 330 patients from 47 institutions over 5 years. The primary endpoint is relapse-free survival; the secondary endpoints are overall survival, proportion of patients completing radiotherapy in the radiotherapy arm, early adverse events, late adverse events in the radiotherapy arm, serious adverse events and local recurrence.
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