Background: First-line treatment of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a paradigm shift to platinum combination chemotherapy together with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, regardless of the expression level of the programmed cell death–1 (PD-1) ligand PD-L1 on tumor cells. Moreover, such chemotherapy plus nivolumab (antibody to PD-1) and ipilimumab (antibody to cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated protein–4) prolonged survival in advanced NSCLC patients compared with chemotherapy alone. We have now designed a randomized, controlled phase III trial (NIPPON, JCOG2007) to confirm that platinum combination chemotherapy plus nivolumab and ipilimumab is superior to such chemotherapy plus pembrolizumab (antibody to PD-1) for treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC. Patients and Methods: Chemotherapy-naïve patients aged 20 years or older with a performance status of 0 or 1 are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive platinum combination chemotherapy and either pembrolizumab or nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Patients with known genetic driver alterations such as those affecting EGFR or ALK are excluded. Enrollment of 422 patients over 3 years at 55 oncology facilities throughout Japan is planned. The primary endpoint is overall survival. In addition, as ancillary research, metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota will be performed with fecal samples collected before treatment onset, and the results will be examined for their association to therapeutic effect and adverse events. Conclusion: If the primary endpoint is met, platinum combination chemotherapy together with nivolumab plus ipilimumab will be established as a new, more effective standard treatment for advanced NSCLC.
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