Purpose: A novel fast kilovoltage switching dual-energy CT with deep learning [Deep learning based-spectral CT (DL-Spectral CT)], which generates a complete sinogram for each kilovolt using deep learning views that complement the measured views at each energy, was commercialized in 2020. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of CT numbers in virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) and iodine quantifications at various radiation doses using DL-Spectral CT. Materials and methods: Two multi-energy phantoms (large and small) using several rods representing different materials (iodine, calcium, blood, and adipose) were scanned by DL-Spectral CT at varying radiation doses. Images were reconstructed using three reconstruction parameters (body, lung, bone). The absolute percentage errors (APEs) for CT numbers on VMIs at 50, 70, and 100 keV and iodine quantification were compared among different radiation dose protocols. Results: The APEs of the CT numbers on VMIs were <15% in both the large and small phantoms, except at the minimum dose in the large phantom. There were no significant differences among radiation dose protocols in computed tomography dose index volumes of 12.3 mGy or larger. The accuracy of iodine quantification provided by the body parameter was significantly better than those obtained with the lung and bone parameters. Increasing the radiation dose did not always improve the accuracy of iodine quantification, regardless of the reconstruction parameter and phantom size. Conclusion: The accuracy of iodine quantification and CT numbers on VMIs in DL-Spectral CT was not affected by the radiation dose, except for an extremely low radiation dose for body size.
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