Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the recommended dose (RD) of capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin and irinotecan (XELOXIRI) as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Method: Patients received irinotecan and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2) on day 1, and capecitabine (1,000 mg/m2 orally twice daily) on days 1-7 of a biweekly schedule. Three dose levels, ranging from 100 to 150 mg/m2, were explored for irinotecan in sequential cohorts of 6 patients. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were assessed in the first cycle to determine the RD. Results: Six patients were enrolled. The DLT was grade 3 febrile neutropenia, which was observed in 2 of the 6 patients at dose level 1. The RD of irinotecan was defined as 150 mg/m2. Toxicity was manageable: the most common grade ≥3 toxicities were neutropenia (2 patients), anemia (1 patient), and anorexia (1 patient). Nodal downstaging (cN+ to ypN0) was detected in 2 patients and the T stage was downstaged in 3 patients. Conclusions: XELOXIRI is a feasible and active regimen for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Febrile neutropenia was the DLT, and the RD of irinotecan is 150 mg/m2.
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