Background Carcinomas of unknown primary site (CUPs) are heterogeneous tumors associated with a poor prognosis. This phase II trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel combination chemotherapy of S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) in patients with CUP. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated CUPs were eligible for this trial. The treatment schedule consisted of oral S-1 (40 mg/m2) twice a day on days 1-21, and intravenous CDDP (60 mg/m2) on day 8. This schedule was repeated every 5 weeks. Results A total of 46 patients were enrolled. The overall response rate and the disease control rate were 41.3 % and 80.4 %, respectively. The median overall survival time was 17.4 months. Grade 3/4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia occurred in 28.3 %, 13.0 %, and 2.2 % of the patients, respectively. Conclusion CDDP plus S-1 combination chemotherapy is well tolerated and active first-line empiric therapies for patients with CUP.
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