Mastication predominance in Kennedy class I (KC I) patients has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate mastication predominance and masticatory performance in KC I patients, including the significance of remaining posterior teeth and removable partial-denture (RPD) treatment. KC I patients who had differences in the number of posterior teeth between left and right sides (D+) and KC I patients who had no differences (D−) were enrolled. Healthy dentate (HD) subjects were also registered as a positive control. Mastication predominance, defined by mastication predominance index (MPI; range 0–100%) calculated from electromyogram activities during voluntary chewing, and masticatory performance were evaluated at pre-and post-RPD treatment. Pre-MPI in KC I D+ was significantly higher than in HD. RPD treatment could significantly improve MPI and masticatory performance in both KC I groups. However, there were significant differences in masticatory performance between each KC I group and HD, regardless of RPD treatment. It was considered that the mastication predominance in KC I patients was affected by the difference in the number of remaining posterior teeth. RPD treatment could improve mastication predominance and masticatory performance in KC I patients, although the latter was not similar to HD group.
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