(Objective) The "Japanese guidelines for prevention of perioperative infections in urological field" was edited by the Japanese Urological Association in 2007. They are the first Japanese guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis specifically to prevent perioperative infections in the urological field. We report here the results of a multicenter prospective study conducted to examine the validity and usefulness of these guidelines. (Patients and methods) The subjects were 513 patients who had undergone urological surgeries between July and September 2008 at 10 nationwide university institutions in the Japanese Society of UTI Cooperative Study Group. These surgeries were transurethral resection of bladder (TURBT), transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), adrenalectomy, nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, radical prostatectomy and total cystectomy. Analysis was performed on patient information, surgical procedures, types and durations of administration of prophylactic antibiotic agents, and the presence of surgical site infections (SSI) and remote infections (RI). (Results) Of 513 patients, 387 (75.4%) were administered prophylactic antibiotic agents according to the guidelines. In these patients, the incidences of SSI and RI were 5.9% and 4.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors for SSI were the surgical risk (according to the ASA physical status classification system), diabetes, and operation time, and that the only significant factor for RI was the operation time. (Conclusions) More large-scale study and evidences are necessary in order to demonstrate the validity and usefulness of these guidelines.
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