Objectives: New versions of balloon-expandable and self-expandable valves for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have been developed, but few studies have examined the outcomes associated with these devices using national-level data. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical and economic outcomes of TAVR for aortic stenosis in Japan through an analysis of real-world data. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed using data from patients with aortic stenosis who had undergone transfemoral TAVR with Edwards SAPIEN 3, Medtronic CoreValve, or Medtronic Evolut R valves throughout Japan from April 2016 to March 2018. Pacemaker implantation, mortality, and health expenditure were examined for each valve type during hospitalization and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Generalized linear regression models and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between the valve types and outcomes. Results: We analyzed 7244 TAVR cases (SAPIEN 3: 5276, CoreValve: 418, and Evolut R: 1550) across 145 hospitals. The adjusted 1-year expenditures for SAPIEN 3, CoreValve, and Evolut R were $79 402, $76 125, and $75 527, respectively; SAPIEN 3 was significantly more expensive than the other valves (P < .05). The pacemaker implantation hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for CoreValve and Evolut R were significantly higher (P < .001) than SAPIEN 3 at 2.61 (2.07-3.27) and 1.80 (1.53-2.12), respectively. The mortality hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for CoreValve and Evolut R were not significant at 1.11 (0.84-1.46) and 1.22 (0.97-1.54), respectively. Conclusions: SAPIEN 3 users had generally lower pacemaker implantation and mortality but higher expenditures than CoreValve and Evolut R users.
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