Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the only available curative modality for patients with adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (ATL). When used in conjunction with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, allo-HCT from an HLA haplo-identical donor yields promising outcomes for many diseases other than ATL. However, appropriate comparisons with other donor sources, especially cord blood and conventional HLA haplo-identical donors, are needed to validate the safety and efficacy of this modality. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the outcome of allo-HCT without PTCY in patients with ATL registered in the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation TRUMP database between 1985 and 2015. During that period, 46 patients received allo-HCT without PTCY and survivors were followed for a median of 2316.5 days (range: 220–3884 days). Although the estimated 1- and 5-year overall survival rates of the entire cohort were 34.5% and 17.7%, respectively, the cumulative 1- and 5-year non-ATL mortality rates of 41.3% and 55.8%, respectively, were high. The results of our study will serve as a platform for discussions of the safety and efficacy of haplo-HCT for future clinical trials in patients with ATL.
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