High-pressure torsion (HPT) method currently receives much attention as a severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique mainly because of the reports of Prof. Ruslan Z. Valiev and his co-workers in 1988. They reported the efficiency of the method in creating ultrafine-grained (UFG) structures with predominantly high-angle grain boundaries, which started the new age of nanoSPD materials with novel properties. The HPT method was first introduced by Prof. Percy W. Bridgman in 1935. Bridgman pioneered application of high torsional shearing stress combined with high hydrostatic pressure to many different kinds of materials such as pure elements, metallic materials, glasses, geological materials (rocks and minerals), biological materials, polymers and many different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds. This paper reviews the findings of Bridgman and his successors from 1935 to 1988 using the HPT method and summarizes their historical importance in recent advancement of materials, properties, phase transformations and HPT machine designs.
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