Objective: Ureteroarterial fistula (UAF) is lethal condition. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the diagnosis and treatment of UAF owing to its rarity. The aim of our report was to present an actual case of UAF and systematically review the symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Methods: The case study was of a 52-year-old woman who had experienced a massive hemorrhage during urinary stent replacement. For the systematic review of studies of UAF, those written in English and reported from 1939 to 2020 were searched for on PubMed using the keywords “uretero-arterial fistula,” “arterio-ureteral fistula,” and “hematuria.” Results: We included 121 studies with 235 patients (mean age, 66.0 years; 139 women [59.1%]) in our review. UAF had occurred most frequently in the common iliac artery (n = 112; 47.7%). Almost all patients (n = 232; 98.7%) had complained of hematuria. The risk factors for UAF were pelvic surgery (n = 205; 87.2%), the long-term use of urinary stents (n = 170; 72.3%), oncologic radiotherapy (n = 107; 45.5%), and malignancy (n = 159; 67.7%). Although computed tomography can detect various useful findings such as extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, hydronephrosis, and opacification of ureters, it was diagnostically useful for only one third of the cases. Angiography was useful for the diagnoses of UAF for 124 (66.3%) of the 187 patients (79.6%) who had undergone angiography. With regard to treatment, endovascular approaches have been widely used in recent years because their invasiveness is lesser than that of open surgical repair. In the era of endovascular therapy, the indications for open surgical repair include ureteral-intestinal fistula, abscess formation, and graft infection after endovascular therapy. Conclusions: Computed tomography can be recommended as the first examination for patients with risk factors for UAF because of its usefulness. Subsequently, angiography should be considered because UAF can be treated using an endovascular approach after diagnostic angiography. The diagnosis and treatment of UAF can often be difficult; therefore, the important first step of diagnosis is suspecting the occurrence of UAF and using a multidisciplinary approach.
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