Central nervous system tumors are classified based on an integrated diagnosis combining histology and molecular characteristics, including IDH1/2 and H3-K27M mutations, as well as 1p/19q codeletion. Here, we aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of a glioma-tailored 48-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel for integrated glioma diagnosis. We designed a glioma-tailored 48-gene NGS panel for detecting 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH1/2, TP53, PTEN, PDGFRA, NF1, RB1, CDKN2A/B, CDK4, and the TERT promoter (TERTp). We analyzed 106 glioma patients (grade II: 19 cases, grade III: 23 cases, grade IV: 64 cases) using this system. The 1p/19q codeletion was detected precisely in oligodendroglial tumors using our NGS panel. In a cohort of 64 grade Ⅳ gliomas, we identified 56 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Within these IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, 33 samples (58.9%) showed a mutation in TERTp. Notably, PDGFRA mutations and their amplification were more commonly seen in TERTp-wildtype glioblastomas (43%) than in TERTp-mutant glioblastomas (6%) (P =.001). Hierarchical molecular classification of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas revealed 3 distinct groups of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. One major cluster was characterized by mutations in PDGFRA, amplification of CDK4 and PDGFRA, homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B, and absence of TERTp mutations. This cluster was significantly associated with older age (P =.021), higher Ki-67 score (P =.007), poor prognosis (P =.012), and a periventricular tumor location. We report the development of a glioma-tailored NGS panel for detecting 1p/19q codeletion and driver gene mutations on a single platform. Our panel identified distinct subtypes of IDH- and TERTp-wildtype glioblastomas with frequent PDGFRA alterations.
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