Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations indicate that energetically stable structure of clean GaN(0001) surface posses (2 × 1) reconstruction, having every second row of Ga located near plane of N atoms, that gives rise to Ga-related dispersionless surface electronic state, already identified by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements [S.S. Dhesi et al. Phys. Rev. B 56 (1997) 10271, L. Plucinski et al. Surf. Sci 507-10 (2002) 223, S. M. Widstrand et al. Surf. Sci. 584 (2005) 169]. The energy reduction in reconstruction proceeds via change of the hybridization of the occupied Ga surface states from sp3 to sp2, transforming the empty states to pz type. It is also shown that the electric subsurface field, modeled in new slab model which allows to simulate electric fields at the semiconductor surfaces [P. Kempisty et al., J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009) 054901], strongly affects the energy of electronic states of GaN(0001) surfaces. The change of the field may shift the energy of surface states of bare and hydrogen covered GaN(0001) surface, by several eV with respect to the band states. The phenomenon, denoted as Surface States Stark Effect (SSSE), explains various band bending values, measured at differently doped n-type GaN(0001) surfaces. It is shown also that, for the adsorbate density up to one H atom for each Ga surface atom i.e. 1 monolayer coverage (1 ML), the hydrogen adatoms are located at the on-top positions, i.e. directly above Ga atoms. For these adsorbate densities, the H-related quantum surface state is located slightly below the valence band maximum (VBM) in the case of p-type GaN surface. For n-type GaN, the H-related surface state is located deeply in the valence band, about 2 eV below VBM. For higher, 1.25 ML hydrogen coverage, the two H adatoms create either surface attached H2 ad-molecule (energetically stable) or triple bridge configuration is created (metastable). The H2 ad-molecule is weekly attached to the surface, having the desorption energy barrier equal to 0.16 eV. For 1.25 ML coverage the DFT results were obtained for p-type GaN only. They show that in the ad-molecule case, a new surface electronic state arises which is located about 6.7 eV below VBM. In the case of the bridge configuration, the bridge related surface state is located closely to the conduction band minimum (CBM).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry