We measured the aboveground biomass, biomass increment and litterfall production of a 140-year-old, abandoned Cryptomeria japonica plantation in order to infer the effects of topography on biomass production. The plantation was unsuccessful and the naturally regenerated broad-leaved trees contributed 93.4% (374.2 Mg ha-1) of the total aboveground biomass (400.2 Mg ha-1). Comparing between different slope positions, aboveground biomass decreased downslope corresponding to the decrease in broad-leaved tree biomass. The biomass of C. japonica did not vary with slope position. Biomass increment and litterfall production of the broad-leaved trees also decreased downslope. However, litterfall production per unit biomass and aboveground net primary production per unit biomass increased downslope. Results of a path analysis showed that biomass increment of C. japonica decreased with increasing topographical convexity, whereas biomass and litterfall production of broad-leaved tree increased. Litterfall production of broad-leaved tree decreased with increasing biomass of C. japonica, suggesting that, despite their small biomass, the presence of residual C. japonica may have negative effects on the distribution and productivity of the broad-leaved trees. Our results indicated that total aboveground biomass of the study site was comparable to that of old-growth C. japonica plantations. We inferred that the variation in aboveground biomass of the broad-leaved trees was largely determined by the topography, while their productivity was affected by interactions with planted C. japonica.
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